Please, read the subject of this post as follows:

**Examples of Theories that were modified without consent of their original authors,**

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I have three examples to show: Maxwell's, Schwartzchild's and Schrodinger's theories.

**1) Maxwell`s equations:**

Original Maxwell's equations, published by 1865, creating the science of electromagnetism, were based on Hamilton's quaternions and a group of 20 four-dimensional equations (i,j,k,t) wich had Hamilton vectors (i,j,k) plus time. The equations had scalar and vectorial terms.

After Maxwell death, Heaviside, Hertz and Lorentz accepted to "assasinate" original Maxwell's equations and, by using vectorial algebra, they were reduced to four vectorial equations, losing the scalar terms.

Nobody can tell what would happen if the original Maxwell's work was preserved and the scalar components were respected. Maybe we would have a much more comprehensive theory of electromagnetism.

**2) Schwartzchild's equation:**

The original Schwartzchild's equation, solving a particular proposal made by Einstein to find an exact solution to gravitational field around a POINT-LIKE mass was (from his original published paper in March 1916, just before he died):

ds^{2} = (1-a/R) dt^{2} - (1-a/R)^{-1} dR^{2} - R^{2}(dT^{2} + sin^{2} T dP^{2}) [a: Alpha symbol; T: Theta symbol; P: Psi symbol)

with R = (r^{3}+a^{3})^{1/3}, 0 <= r and a an integration constant related to the mass at 0,0,0.

**r** was the radial distance in spherical coordinates, and **had only one singularity at r=0.**

In 1917, Hilbert rescued Schwartzchild from oblivion, and modified his frame of reference, creating a new equation which he

named "the Schwartzchild's solution"),

ds^{2} = (1-2m/r) dt^{2} - (1-2m/r)^{-1} dr^{2} - r^{2}(dT^{2} + sin^{2} T dP^{2}) [a: Alpha symbol; T: Theta symbol; P: Psi symbol)

By doing so, Hilbert introduced **a second singularity **at **r = 2m** (G and c were adopted as having "1" value).

In 1956, Wolfgang Rindler rescued Hilbert's solution from oblivion (again) and speculated about a Black Hole having a definite

radius what he called "event horizon" and strange properties within its surface, like trapping light. He coined the term "black hole" and a whole new theory was born.

**3) Schrodinger's equation:**

In 1926, Schrodinger introduced an equation for the waveform of electrons around atoms, which didn't include time and

was not compliant with restricted relativity.

The solutions he found had an spatial value which he related to the energy distribution of the electron at a given orbital.

Against his explicit desire, and in spite of furious discussions, Max Born CHANGED the original Schrodinger's concept of energy

distribution in space around the atom's nucleus to a PROBABILITY FUNCTION **of finding the electron within** the volumes that resulted from different solutions.

Schrodinger never forget this change and, by 1933, he stated that he "regretted to develop such formula", as he wasn't convinced

at all about the changes and the impact it had in Quantum Mechanics.

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There are many examples documented since Kepler's time about these re-writings or conceptual changes.

The consequences are that next generations after a given development, are misguided about the original proposal.

As physics differs from history of physics, there is a controversy within educational boards and institutions about the need to teach

history of physics along with physics. The prevailing argument is that, by doing so, students can be confused and prevented to

understand the topic that is being taught. **So, better that they learn what the teacher tells them and that's it!**

**I don't agree with this point of view at all as consequences are fatal to get the true knowledge.**

One popular example is how SR is taught, and how concepts like relativistic mass were introduced to generations

of students. Once they embraced the deformed theory, it is very difficult that they can UNLEARN that relativistic

mass is an historical post-Einstenian concept.

What do you think about this subject?

**Edited by rhertz, 24 April 2019 - 07:27 PM.**