write4u Posted February 4 Author Report Share Posted February 4 (edited) On 11/4/2022 at 11:47 PM, JeffreysTubes8 said: This is exactly what concerns me, how can something more complicated be saved and stored as data transfer in something less complicated than itself, such as the coded blueprints of the entire human body in Eukaryotic cells? To discern between the entire neural pathways and how they interact and think wouldn't the dna have to be able to think itself? No, chromosomes don't need to think. And DNA does not store memories of an experiential nature. DNA contains only cell growth instructions and is strictly chemical in function. This is what allows the microtubules to make copies with exquisite fidelity. What does DNA do? The DNA code contains chemical instructions needed to make the proteins and molecules essential for chronological growth, development and health. Quote DNA? provides instructions for making proteins? (as explained by the central dogma?). The sequence of the bases?, A, C, G and T, in DNA determines our unique genetic code and provides the instructions for producing molecules in the body. The cell reads the DNA code in groups of three bases. Each triplet of bases, also called a codon, specifies which amino acid? will be added next during protein synthesis. There are 20 different amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. Different proteins are made up of different combinations of amino acids. This gives them their own unique 3D structure and function in the body. Only 61 of the 64 codons are used to specify which of the 20 amino acids is next to be added. There are three codons that don’t code for an amino acid. These codons mark the end of the protein and stop the addition of amino acids to the end of the protein chain. The codon wheel above can be used to translate DNA codons into amino acids. Find the first letter of your sequence in the inner circle and work outwards to see the corresponding amino acid, for example ATG = methionine. Image credit: Genome Research Limited https://www.yourgenome.org/facts/what-does-dna-do/ The role of microtubules in the mitotic spindle is to make exact copies of the chromosomes, so that the exact growth instructions are passed on into the daughter cells. Any copy errors are usually too small to impact the overall construct, but does show up as identifiable differences even between siblings and of course may lead to favorable or unfavorable natural selection along the lifeline of the organism. Memories are stored in the Purkinje neurons in the brain and they much more numerous than all the cells in your body. There are some 14.5 million Purkinje neurons in the cerebellum and a single Purkinje neuron may connect to 100,000 synapses, fed by bundles of neural microtubules. Does that pique your interest?..😲 MTCL1 plays an essential role in maintaining Purkinje neuron axon initial segment, Tomoko SatakeKazunari YamashitaKenji HayashiSatoko MiyatakeMiwa Tamura-NakanoHiroshi DoiYasuhide FurutaGo ShioiEriko MiuraYukari H TakeoKunihiro YoshidaHiroyuki YahikozawaNaomichi MatsumotoMichisuke YuzakiAtsushi Suzuki Abstract Quote The axon initial segment (AIS) is a specialized domain essential for neuronal function, the formation of which begins with localization of an ankyrin-G (AnkG) scaffold. However, the mechanism directing and maintaining AnkG localization is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that in vivo knockdown of microtubule cross-linking factor 1 (MTCL1) in cerebellar Purkinje cells causes loss of axonal polarity coupled with AnkG mislocalization. MTCL1 lacking MT-stabilizing activity failed to restore these defects, and stable MT bundles spanning the AIS were disorganized in knockdown cells. Interestingly, during early postnatal development, colocalization of MTCL1 with these stable MT bundles was observed prominently in the axon hillock and proximal axon. These results indicate that MTCL1-mediated formation of stable MT bundles is crucial for maintenance of AnkG localization. We also demonstrate that Mtcl1 gene disruption results in abnormal motor coordination with Purkinje cell degeneration, and provide evidence suggesting possible involvement of MTCL1 dysfunction in the pathogenesis of spinocerebellar ataxia. https://www.embopress.org/doi/full/10.15252/embj.201695630# <==the paralell fibers are bundled microtubules? microtubuleshttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/purkinje-cell# Purkinje Neurons: Development, Morphology, and Function, Tomoo Hirano 1 Abstract Quote Cerebellar Purkinje neurons are arguably some of the most conspicuous neurons in the vertebrate central nervous system. They have characteristic planar fan-shaped dendrites which branch extensively and fill spaces almost completely with little overlap. This dendritic morphology is well suited to receiving a single or a few excitatory synaptic inputs from each of more than 100,000 parallel fibers which run orthogonally to Purkinje cell dendritic trees. In contrast, another type of excitatory input to a Purkinje neuron is provided by a single climbing fiber, which forms some hundreds to thousands of synapses with a Purkinje neuron. This striking contrast between the two types of synaptic inputs to a Purkinje neuron has attracted many neuroscientists. Quote It is also to be noted that Purkinje neurons are the sole neurons sending outputs from the cerebellar cortex. In other words, all computational results within the cortex are transmitted by Purkinje cell axons, which inhibit neurons in the cerebellar or vestibular nucleus. Notably, Purkinje neurons show several forms of synaptic plasticity. Among them, long-term depression (LTD) at parallel fiber synapses has been regarded as a putatively essential mechanism for cerebellum-dependent learning. In this special issue on Purkinje neurons, you will find informative reviews and original papers on the development, characteristics and functions of Purkinje neurons, or related themes contributed by outstanding researchers. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30284678/ And it appears that it is the Purkinje neurons that store memories and like the Pyramidal neurons are actively involved in processing sensory stimulation and processing of input data against prior memorized experiential data in a constant feed-back loop that produces cognition and triggers action potentials in response. Is this the point where consciousness emerges? Edited February 15 by write4u identification Quote Link to comment Share on other sites More sharing options...
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