write4u Posted October 23, 2022 Report Share Posted October 23, 2022 (edited) It is my belief that microtubules are the fundamental common nanoscale data processors responsible for the emergence of consciousness in all Eukaryotic organisms at various levels of complexity. I'll start with an illustration and brief description of this marvelously versatile selforganizing dipolar coil that seems to function as all three different types of variable resistors which we have named in electronics as: Potentiometer. Rheostat. Thermistor. Any input from knowledgeable minds is welcome. Behold the microtubule Quote Microtubules are polymers of tubulin that form part of the cytoskeleton and provide structure and shape to eukaryotic cells. Microtubules can be as long as 50 micrometres, as wide as 23 to 27 nm and have an inner diameter between 11 and 15 nm. They are formed by the polymerization of a dimer of two globular proteins, alpha and beta tubulin into protofilaments that can then associate laterally to form a hollow tube, the microtubule. The most common form of a microtubule consists of 13 protofilaments in the tubular arrangement. Microtubules play an important role in a number of cellular processes. They are involved in maintaining the structure of the cell and, together with microfilaments and intermediate filaments, they form the cytoskeleton. They also make up the internal structure of cilia and flagella. They provide platforms for intracellular transport and are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including the movement of secretory vesicles, organelles, and intracellular macromolecular assemblies. They are also involved in cell division (by mitosis and meiosis) and are the main constituents of mitotic spindles, which are used to pull eukaryotic chromosomes apart. Microtubules are nucleated and organized by microtubule-organizing centres, such as the centrosome found in the center of many animal cells or the basal bodies of cilia and flagella, or the spindle pole bodies found in most fungi. There are many proteins that bind to microtubules, including the motor proteins dynein and kinesin, microtubule-severing proteins like katanin, and other proteins important for regulating microtubule dynamics. Recently an actin-like protein has been found in the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, which forms a microtubule-like structure called a nanotubule, involved in plasmid segregation. Other bacterial microtubules have a ring of five protofilaments. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microtubule Microtubules in neurons Quote Figure 1 Microtubule organization in the vertebrate neuron Schematic of typical vertebrate neuron with one axon and multiple dendrites. Microtubules are nearly uniformly oriented in the axon, and non-uniformly oriented in the dendrites. Microtubules in both the axon and the dendrites consist individually of a stable domain (shown in red) and a labile domain (shown in yellow), with the labile domain toward the plus end of the microtubule. Short mobile microtubules in the axon are entirely stable. Microtubules in the axon and dendrites vary in their length, with none of them attached to the centrosome. In the axon, a higher percentage of the total microtubule mass is stable compared to the situation in the dendrite. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5541393/# As a final teaser. The human brain alone has some 100 billion microtubules, connected by 1000 trillion synapses. Think about it! The Synapse Quote The synapse, rather, is that small pocket of space between two cells, where they can pass messages to communicate. A single neuron may contain thousands of synapses. In fact, one type of neuron called the Purkinje cell, found in the brain's cerebellum, may have as many as one hundred thousand synapses.Aug 1, 2019 https://dana.org/article/qa-neurotransmission-the-synapse/# And here is the overwhelming evidence! On average, the human brain contains about 100 billion neurons and many more neuroglia which serve to support and protect the neurons. Each neuron may be connected to up to 10,000 other neurons, passing signals to each other via as many as 1,000 trillion synapses.May 30, 2019 https://arxiv.org/abs/1906.01703# Edited October 29, 2022 by write4u correction Quote Link to comment Share on other sites More sharing options...
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