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# Atom Clock and Time Dilation

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Atom Clock and Time Dilation

In short: when an electron jumps from an energy level to a lower energy level, it releases electromagnetic waves. The atomic clock counts these electromagnetic waves to click time.

---------- The above does not need to be discussed ----------

Does each jump release a wave?

My hypothesis: There is a little chance, the electron jumps into another atom nucleus directly, then we will lose a wave.

When the density of cesium increases, the distance between cesium atoms decreases, the chance of electrons jumping into another atom nucleus directly increases. The atom clock will count less than before.

So there will be a situation: For the two calibrated atomic clocks, the one with low cesium density will go faster than the one with high cesium density. This is what people call time dilation right now.

The nature of time dilation: Gravity increases the density of cesium, so that the wavenumber of atomic clocks is less than that of weightless atomic clocks. It's not that gravity slows down time.

---------- An experiment can proof it or not ----------

A simple experiment: Two small atom clocks and a centrifuge. Put one clock in the centrifuge, keep it under high centrifugal force, the density will increase. Then compare two clocks.

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Simon;

A small amount of cesium is in a gaseous state, and manipulated with lasers as it falls vertically. A microwave generator flips the spins of the electrons, then a laser energizes the electrons and a detector counts the number that flipped to higher energy states. The feedback from the detector adjusts the microwave frequency to be resonant with the cesium atoms transition state, approx. 9 billion hertz.
The waves may be considered a photon.
Density does not play a role in atomic clocks.Motion affects clock rates, since motion alters em processes. Thus time dilation is a consequence of a finite independent speed of light, and is not a result of acceleration.

Gravity also influences clock rates. The Hafele-Keating experiment demonstrated both effects in their 1971 experiment.

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13 hours ago, sluggo said:

Simon;

A small amount of cesium is in a gaseous state, and manipulated with lasers as it falls vertically. A microwave generator flips the spins of the electrons, then a laser energizes the electrons and a detector counts the number that flipped to higher energy states. The feedback from the detector adjusts the microwave frequency to be resonant with the cesium atoms transition state, approx. 9 billion hertz.
The waves may be considered a photon.
Density does not play a role in atomic clocks.Motion affects clock rates, since motion alters em processes. Thus time dilation is a consequence of a finite independent speed of light, and is not a result of acceleration.

Gravity also influences clock rates. The Hafele-Keating experiment demonstrated both effects in their 1971 experiment.

So is there any chance a electron jumping into another nucleus?

Gravity influencing clock rate is much different with influencing time.

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My friends, thanks for your replies. But it is a little far away to talk about dark matter and gravity wave. Let's come back to my hypothesis.

"... a detector counts the number that flipped to higher energy states..." acutaully it counts the waves which electrons release. When a electron jumps into another nucleus, we miss a count.

Density doesn't play role in atom clock design really, but doesn't it matter the atom clock? When the density is high, the nucleus are closer, and the chance of electrons jumping into nucleus are higher. In other words, in higher density, we miss more counts. That is why atom clock in satellite clicks faster than on the earth, in satellite the density is less than on the earth, and less miss counts.

The Hafele-Keating experiment support my hypothesis as well.

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Simon;

1. So is there any chance a electron jumping into another nucleus?

2. Gravity influencing clock rate is much different with influencing time.

1. The atoms are cooled to low temperatures for more control, a typical precaution in isolated experiments.

2. Both factors reduce the available energy of a clock.

You can visit Nist.gov for official answers, they provide the world time standard.

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On 5/30/2021 at 12:56 AM, JeffreysTubes8 said:

Density doesn't necessarily have to do with particle confusion or the event you are talking about, it is not more likely to occur just because the nuclei are closer together. It has more to do with the surrounding interactions. Flip a coin.

My friend, I am not talking about confusion or flip a coin, I have no problem with them.

I am talking about missing counting. I summarized my questions as follows:

1. Is there any chance an electron jumps into another nucleus?
2. When an electron jumps into another nucleus, will we lose a count?
3. Does density affect the chance of jumping?
4. Has the designer of the atom clock anticipated this situation and devised a preventive mechanism?

Any of the above can negate my hypothesis.

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On 6/2/2021 at 7:26 AM, sluggo said:

1. The atoms are cooled to low temperatures for more control, a typical precaution in isolated experiments.

2. Both factors reduce the available energy of a clock.

You can visit Nist.gov for official answers, they provide the world time standard.

No matter the temperatures, electrons still have chance to jump into other nucleus.

I hope you can understand how different my hypothesis is right or not. It can turn satellite atomic clock phenomenon to against the Relativity.

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6 hours ago, JeffreysTubes8 said:

2. No

3. No

Ｗhen an electron jumps from an energy level to a lower energy level, it releases electromagnetic waves. The atomic clock counts these electromagnetic waves to click time. When an electron jumps into another nucleus, it won't come out and jump to lower energy level anymore, and it won't release wave for the one jump before. Atom clock will miss the count of the jump.

Suppose that the jump of electrons is limited by a certain distance. In this distance, higher density will contain more nucleus, more nucleus meaning more chance to jump into nucleus.

Negligibly means greater than zero. 38 microseconds in one day is really negligibly as well.

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