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The Use of Music for


Learning Languages: A Review of the Literature

Jon Weatherford Stansell


University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign


Updated September 14, 2005


Click for PDF Version




Throughout time, healers, philosophers, scientists, and teachers have recognized the place of music for therapeutic and developmental functions (Bancroft 3-7). Researchers over the last twenty years have made astounding advances in the theory of language acquisition. Many find the pedagogical conjoining of language and music compelling. The first part of this review focuses on the historical and developmental proofs of music's relationship with language learning. In part two, neurological theory on music and the mind are covered. Part three summarizes scholarly inquiry on the use of music for learning languages, especially those studies that could prove most instructive both for language teachers and for music therapists in the development of curricula.




The Use of Music for


Learning Languages: A Review of the Literature

The Use of Music in Learning Languages



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Amazon.com: Tocar y Luchar (To Play and To Fight): Alberto Arvelo,Igor Lanz,Nestor L. Lopez-Duran: Movies & TV http://www.amazon.com/Tocar-y-Luchar-Play-Fight/dp/B000UHAGNO/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8

I skimmed through your impressive bibliography. I may have missed this:   NOVA | Musical Minds | PBS   It's very good.   --lemit

Have you seen the scan results showing that more parts of the brain are simoultaneously active when one is playing an instrument while singing than in any other activity including flying a supersonic

Kyla Brettle: I suppose some of the scepticism and perceived flakiness about music therapy is engendered by...you hear these quick fixes, listen to Mozart for ten minutes a day and you'll get 20% smarter. And I heard that the Danish government were actually giving soldiers in Iraq singing pillows, with the idea that this would lessen the stress and trauma of being in a war zone. What's your stance on these sorts of claims for music therapy in a general sense, I mean what sorts of assertions do you not support?


Helen Shoemark: Well I think that there's been a real populist application, just like, you know, people grab an idea and they run with it. And it's quite a superficial application. And indeed Frances Rauscher, who did the original piece of research about the impact of the Mozart, is not part of that popular explosion of usage for Mozart. She is much more concerned with the impact of music lessons on the development of the brain and those sorts of issues, and really said that this was a very small project and she hasn't supported the broad application that has arisen. And it's not really a scientific application at all and it's certainly no part of music therapy.


Kyla Brettle: And I suppose in those sorts of examples there seems to be an underlying assumption that people respond equally to all sorts of different music and...I mean personally I'd go insane if new agey pan pipes were piped to me through my pillow.


Helen Shoemark: Absolutely, we all have very individual tastes and certainly in the situation that I'm in sometimes they look at me and say, do we have to have some Mozart or Beethoven or, you know, what do we have to listen to? And as I say to them, this is not about what about other people deem to be the right music, this is about your music, this is about the music that you find relaxing. And so the notion that you can, as Beth says, apply two Beethovens and call me in the morning, is ludicrous.


Hospital reception: Good evening, Peter MacCallum, Nadia speaking.


Clare O'Callahan: We're in the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre and we are coming into the social work department, which manages music therapy.

All In The Mind - 31 January 2009 - Music: Is it really therapeutic?

I'd go insane if new-agey pan pipes were piped to me through my pillow.:) :magic:

What's wrong with pan pipes? I suppose she is prejudiced against the banjo too?

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I'm coming late into the discussion, but I think music and arts are absolutely necessary to realizing the potential of a human being. I wish I'd had more musical training when I was a child. I learned to play piano when I was about 15 or 16, and I noticed that it helped improve my ability to think, learn, and feel. I was able to concentrate more fully and in general many efforts, like reading or typing, seemed much easier after musical training. I still play a bit but not as much as I used to.


Like InfinityNow says, it's absolutely wonderful for a child's brain. When or if I have children, I would love for them to be involved in playing, listening, and celebrating the joys of music. Music opens up and realizes the possibilities of the mind. I'd like them to go one step further than me.


This is nerdy, but for The Lord of the Rings lovers, check out the first couple pages of The Silmarillion and the music of the Ainur. It always struck me as a moving and lyrical description of creation: that beautiful music breathes things into being, into new life. And I think Tolkien had a very deep appreciation for music and the arts that was reflected in his writings.

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Music in Reducing Anxiety and Pain in Adult Patients Undergoing Bone Marrow Biopsy for Hematologic Cancers or Other Diseases

This study is ongoing, but not recruiting participants.

First Received: September 13, 2006 Last Updated: July 20, 2009

Music in Reducing Anxiety and Pain in Adult Patients Undergoing Bone Marrow Biopsy for Hematologic Cancers or Other Diseases - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

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'Music And Medicine' Launched By SAGE


Main Category: Pain / Anesthetics

Also Included In: Anxiety / Stress; Psychology / Psychiatry; Cancer / Oncology

Article Date: 10 Aug 2009 - 0:00 PDT




In response to a recent surge in studies that integrate medicine and music, SAGE, the world's leading independent academic and professional publisher, is pleased to launch Music and Medicine in July, a new interdisciplinary journal that will incorporate the research that combines the two disciplines.


This new official Journal of the International Association for Music and Medicine is peer reviewed and edited by Joanne Loewy, DA, LCAT, MT-BC, Director of the distinguished Louis Armstrong Center for Music & Medicine, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, and David Aldridge, PhD, FRSM, Director of the notable Nordoff-Robbins Zentrum, Witten, for applied music in health care practice and research, Germany. With the goal of bringing together information that is currently scattered across many disciplines and throughout many publications, Music and Medicine will focus on studies that integrate the science of medicine with the art of music, and the art of medicine with the science of music.


The journal covers a number of subjects about how music and medicine interact, including:

  • Analgesia and music sedation
  • Cancer care: active and receptive music approaches
  • Cardiology and rhythm
  • Dementia, stroke and music memory
  • Infant stimulation
  • Music during surgery
  • Stress response and music relaxation

"Our intention is to provide a venue for the development of theory based on practice, and we will draw on specific research in music and medicine," said co-editor Loewy.


"We invite participation through dialogue about the impact that music has upon the brain, for human physiology, and in developing unique clinical areas, such as sleep investigations and pain management," said co-editor Aldridge.


Music and Medicine will be published bi-annually in 2009 and quarterly beginning in 2010 with an innovative journal launch strategy - free online access for the first three years for individuals through December 2011.



Jim Gilden

SAGE Publications

'Music And Medicine' Launched By SAGE

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A friend sent me this moving speech as a word document. With some searching, I found that it was originally a speech given by Pianoist, Karl Paulnack, at an opening ceremony for the freshmen of the Boston Conservatory of Music.


It is a moving speech and I think it gets to the heart of the OP. Make sure to read the whole speech at the link, it is wonderful. Enjoy! :QuestionM


“If we were a medical school, and you were here as a med student practicing appendectomies, you’d take your work very seriously because you would imagine that some night at two AM someone is going to waltz into your emergency room and you’re going to have to save their life. Well, my friends, someday at 8 PM someone is going to walk into your concert hall and bring you a mind that is confused, a heart that is overwhelmed, a soul that is weary. Whether they go out whole again will depend partly on how well you do your craft.


You’re not here to become an entertainer, and you don’t have to sell yourself. The truth is you don’t have anything to sell; being a musician isn’t about dispensing a product, like selling used Chevies. I’m not an entertainer; I’m a lot closer to a paramedic, a firefighter, a rescue worker. You’re here to become a sort of therapist for the human soul, a spiritual version of a chiropractor, physical therapist, someone who works with our insides to see if they get things to line up, to see if we can come into harmony with ourselves and be healthy and happy and well.


Frankly, ladies and gentlemen, I expect you not only to master music; I expect you to save the planet. If there is a future wave of wellness on this planet, of harmony, of peace, of an end to war, of mutual understanding, of equality, of fairness, I don’t expect it will come from a government, a military force or a corporation. I no longer even expect it to come from the religions of the world, which together seem to have brought us as much war as they have peace. If there is a future of peace for humankind, if there is to be an understanding of how these invisible, internal things should fit together, I expect it will come from the artists, because that’s what we do. As in the concentration camp and the evening of 9/11, the artists are the ones who might be able to help us with our internal, invisible lives.”


Welcome Address, by Karl Paulnack

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Reducing Crime with music education

Mentoring to the Max! Initiative

It takes the collaborative efforts of a team to make

progress, especially when it comes to making

a difference in the lives of Tulsa’s community.

Mayor Taylor’s Mentoring to the Max! initiative

was an outcome of the 2006 Building a Safer Tulsa

Summit on gang prevention. The summit focused

on formulating real solutions to keep at-risk kids

off the streets and out of gangs.

Mayor Taylor’s office, joined by Mentoring to

the Max! partners, was committed to bringing

awareness to Tulsans about the great need for

mentors and positive after-school activities in the

community. Mentoring partners are: Community

Service Council (CSC) of Greater Tulsa, Big

Brothers Big Sisters of Oklahoma, Camp Fire

USA, Junior Achievement, Junior League of Tulsa,

Oklahoma Foundation for Excellence (Molly and

David Boren’s Mentoring Initiative), Partners in

Education, Resonance, Tulsa Public Schools and

Union Public Schools.

Since January 2007, the mentoring initiative has

reached more than 700 students in 18 community

schools through out-of-school time in Tulsa and

Union Public Schools. Mentoring to the Max!

owes its success to the more than 400 volunteer

mentors who generously donate their time to

this incredible cause. Mentoring has been proven

to keep kids in school, improve their grades and

reduce crime.

Now, with Mentoring to the Max with Music,

Mayor Taylor’s team is creating another powerful

and inspiring way to reach young people and give

them a sense of accomplishment and self-worth.

The program is recruiting active and retired

musicians, as well as high school and college

students with a passion for music to work with 4th

and 5th grade students. Volunteering just one hour

a week of mentoring has the potential to change a

child’s life forever.

Building a Safer Tulsa Summit

Mayor Taylor, joined by U.S. Attorney David

O’Meilia hosted the 2006 Building a Safer Tulsa

Summit. The two-day summit reinforced the

fact that the quality of a city’s education system

directly influences the success of a city – or the

lack thereof – including crime rates, health issues,

gang problems, housing needs, employment rates,

business development tax revenues, the arts and

population trends.

A Progress Report to Tulsanspdf

reduce crime. Now, with Mentoring to the Max with Music, ... Cities

Program, “ City Leaders Supporting Afterschool and A New Day of




South Africa, the arts and youth in conflict with the law



This article describes the Diversion into Music Education (DIME) youth intervention programme that originated in South Africa in 2001. DIME offers instruction in African marimba and djembe ensemble performance to juvenile offenders. Conceived as community collaboration among organizations in the cities of Cape Town, South Africa and Tampa, United States of America (including the University of the Western Cape and the University of South Florida), DIME offers a unique example of community music and multicultural music education. Its distinctive nature lies in an intervention format that integrates music teaching, mentoring and intercultural exchanges aimed at both the acquisition of musical skills that offer opportunities for healthy diversion from crime and at successful reintegration into society.




This is a great article:-

Thursday, December 03, 2009

SANCTUARY IN HARMONY: How Music Education is Saving Lives in LA

by Lucia Brawley | first published in the Community Marketing Blog, reprinted in Huffington Post

. . . . . .

Margaret Martin

So, nine years ago, with a $9,000 check from the Rotary Club of Hollywood, Margaret founded the Harmony Project, with the vision of providing instruments and instruction to the most forgotten, disenfranchised kids in all of L.A. – a city renowned for its vast population of forgotten, disenfranchised kids. Margaret puts it this way:


We get them early. Kids start with us as first-graders and, by the time they get to be 12 or 13 . . . well, now I have one who’s applying to shi-shi boarding schools on the East Coast. She lives in a gang-infested, horrible neighborhood. But she plays flute, sings in choir, is self-possessed, willing to give it a shot, knows how to present herself, how to work and achieve – all skills that are generalizeable and transferable. Music is just a vehicle for the life skills that it develops in an organic and joyful way. The kids gain a skill set that they can use as a means of social inclusion all their lives. Every body wants the musicians. If you have a party, don’t you want to invite musicians? Every one wants to hang with them. They make magic.


She emphasizes that “initial catalytic support,” like that of the Rotary Club is essential, and difficult, for a burgeoning non-profiit to find. “[The Harmony Project] was just an idea 9 years ago. But ideas can have power when you put action behind them. I tell our supporters that youth have powerful ideas. What happens when you put action and support behind them?”


Today, the Harmony Project receives about $1.2 million per year, supporting 7 different full-time youth orchestras with students from more than more than 60 schools. Half of the funding comes from private donors and foundations, the other half from the partnerships with the LA Philharmonic (and its Youth Orchestra LA or YOLA),* LA Unified School District, and LA City College – all of which help the Harmony Project obtain rehearsal rooms, venues, instruments and other resources.


Harmony Project copy<<Photo: Leslie Cardenas, front, and Sara Flores rehearse as part of the Harmony Project in this 2007 photo. Credit: Richard Hartog / Los Angeles Times


Right now, the Harmony Project is fundraising together with the Mayor’s Office of Gang Reduction and Youth Development. They have highlighted 12 gang reduction zones (areas with a high documented rate of violent gang crime) in which Harmony Project serves as an official part of the city’s strategy to reduce gangs by keeping kids away from predators, and helping them develop discipline, persistence, self-esteem and accountability which will lead them to success in school and in life.


The Los Angeles DA’s office has put in an official request to Congresswoman Linda T. Sanchez’ office to introduce music programs in two new districts. 17 more public schools (4 middle, 13 elementary) have recently requested programs, hoping to develop pipelines between middle and elementary schools, and then on to high schools – at which point, city-wide instruction happens all in one place, at LA City College. LAUSD, through their Beyond the Bell after-school system, have offered to cover one-third of emerging program costs, but Harmony Project must raise the other two thirds. “With enough sponsorship, we can roll the programs out in the most troubled parts of our city,” Margaret Martin says. “That’s what we’re working hard to find funding to do.”


In the past few years, Harmony Poject has managed to offer $5,000 scholarships to all students going on to 2- or 4-year institutions of higher education. The students must have remained enrolled in the music program for at least 3 years, have graduated from high school, gained entrance into college, and written an essay about their plans. As long as each student maintains a C average or better in college, he or she will continue receiving their scholarship for the duration of their matriculation. Last year, three students won the scholarship. This year, it was nine. “We are blessed that we have a donor who has agreed to fund 200 such scholarships,” says Margaret. Those are good numbers




How Classical Music Can Reduce Crime, Benefit Your Mood and Increase Your Spending

by Healthy Family - Health and Wealth, Home Safety, Health, Relationship, Growing Family


To classical music enthusiasts, the genre needs no help in extolling its virtues, but researchers have come across some rather surprising benefits of classical music anyway. Among them is the finding that classical music has a penchant for deterring crime.


Armed with only a CD player and speakers, police units in the United States and the UK are fighting crime with classical music.


Robberies Cut by 33 Percent

In 2004 in London, England, the British Transport Police piped classical music into London Underground stations in some of the area's most dangerous neighborhoods. After playing the music for six months:

  • Robberies were cut by 33 percent
  • Staff assaults decreased by 25 percent
  • Vandalism went down 37 percent


This is not the first time that classical music has been used to deter crime. In 2001, police in West Palm Beach, Florida installed a CD player and speakers on an abandoned building in a crime-ridden neighborhood. After playing classical music -- mostly Mozart, Bach and Beethoven -- 24 hours a day for about three months, shootings, thefts, loiterers and drug deals decreased.

Get Rid of Toxins: How Classical Music Can Reduce Crime, Benefit Your Mood and Increase Your Spending





* Music, At-Risk Students, and the Missing Piece

* Scott C. Shuler

* Music Educators Journal, Vol. 78, No. 3, Special Focus: Music and the At-Risk Student (Nov., 1991), pp. 21-23+25-29

(article consists of 8 pages)

* Published by: MENC: The National Association for Music Education

* Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3398284


Music, At-Risk Students, and the Missing Piece


Music, At-Risk Students, and the Missing Piece, by Scott C. Shuler © 1991 MENC: The National Association for Music Education.


Musical Benefits

Music is one of the most underestimated tools in our society. It is obvious to the average person that music is beneficial to the auditory and motor systems of the body when listening to songs or playing an instrument. The effects of learning and playing music, however, provide the largest impact on children. Not only is music pleasing to the ear, but scientists have discovered remarkable connections "that show how music study can actively contribute to brain development" (Facts and Figures 2).

Researchers at the Tokyo Metropolitan University of Health Sciences have concluded that because the left hemisphere of the brain deals with language, and the right hemisphere deals with music, they share a common neural network through speaking and singing (Society 3). In other words, language skills and music skills depend on and benefit one another through the sharing of neurological pathways in the human brain. Not only is music enjoyable and fun to partake in, but scientists now know it has educational and therapeutic properties as well.

Music also plays an important part in expanding memory. For example, learning mathematical formulas requires the brain to learn new material and then apply it to existing material. Many teachers

call this the building block process. In essence, the brain is creating networks among neural cells which act as the building blocks. When learning a piece of music, the brain goes through the same process, therefore expanding one's memory by creating additional networks of neurons. Furthermore, certain elements of math, reading, writing, and science require one's brain to reconfigure basic material for higher learning. By reconstructing these neural pathways, practicing music also requires the brain to perform this same learning skill, such as reading multiple chords instead of one note at a time (Lu 1).

The bottom line to music education is that anyone can benefit from it, no matter what their

socioeconomic status, age, health, or problem at stake. Listening or playing music is a common form of stress relief and expression for people today. Music has been shown to decrease heart rate, blood pressure, and anxiety levels in the human body. Many students choose to listen to classical music as they study, while a majority of drivers tend to listen to relaxing songs when stuck in rush hour traffic. On the other hand, high school locker rooms are full of athletes pumping the team up with a high-energy rock or rap anthem. Sports fans of all races and cultures sing in unison to the National Anthem before the game begins. Society does not need to look any farther for such a unique and universal language.

Pirate Papers


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Music exposure helps premature babies gain weight and strength naturally, study finds

(NaturalNews) . . .

A new study by Dr. Dror Mandel and Dr. Ronit Lubetzky of the Tel Aviv Medical Center, which is affiliated with Tel Aviv University's Sackler School of Medicine, found premature infants exposed to thirty minutes of Mozart's music daily grew far more rapidly than premature babies not exposed to the classical music.


"It's not exactly clear how the music is affecting them, but it makes them calmer and less likely to be agitated," Dr. Mandel said in a statement to the media.

"The repetitive melodies in Mozart's music may be affecting the organizational centers of the brain's cortex. Unlike Beethoven, Bach or Bartok, Mozart's music is composed with a melody that is highly repetitive.

This might be the musical explanation. For the scientific one, more investigation is needed."


By measuring the physiological effects of music by Mozart played to pre-term newborns for 30 minutes, Dr. Mandel and Dr. Lubetzky and colleagues documented that when the babies were exposed to the music, they expended less energy -- a process that can lead to faster weight gain and growth.

Music exposure helps premature babies gain weight and strength naturally, study finds

Is music "brain food" too?


The research is based on a controversial 1993 study showing that college students improved their IQs by listening to a Mozart sonata for 10 minutes. When the study was reported, parents in the U.S. started buying Mozart CDs, hoping to boost their children's brainpower.


Soon the Israeli researchers will start exploring different kinds of music to see if they can measure any similar effects on premature babies. One Israeli researcher suggested that rap music might evoke the same response as Mozart, since the pulsating and repetitive frequency in Mozart's music can be found in contemporary urban music as well.


The researchers will also survey mothers to discover what kind of music their babies were exposed to in the womb. They will then expose other neonates to the same music to scientifically verify any effect. The pieces to be played to the preterm babies will include ethnic music, rap music, pop music, and, of course, classical music like Bach, Beethoven and Mozart, says Dr. Mandel.

American Friends of Tel Aviv University: A Sonata a Day Keeps the Doctor Away

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« Genetics Study: Will IVF Babies Face Health Problems Later in Life?

Setting the Record Straight: Belgian Coma Patient Cannot Communicate »

Singing Therapy Can Rewire Brains of Speech-Impaired Stroke Patients

submit to reddit . .


brain-3If you can’t say it, then sing it! Experts researching patients who have lost their ability to speak after a stroke are now suggesting that they could be able to communicate with music using Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT). Using MIT, the scientists showed that patients who were earlier communicating only in mumbles and grunts could now learn to sing out basic phrases like “I am thirsty.”


The study was conducted by Harvard Medical School neurologist Gottfried Schlaug on 12 patients whose speech was impaired by strokes, and showed that patients who were taught to essentially sing their words improved their verbal abilities and maintained the improvement for up to a month after the end of the therapy [Wall Street Journal]. Schlaug presented these findings at the meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in San Diego.


The researchers worked with stroke patients whose speech was incoherent, and who had damage in a region of the left side of the brain that is typically involved in speech. Schlaug’s research suggests that the brain can be essentially rewired. Stroke patients can learn to use a region on the right side of the brain, which is typically involved with music, for sing-songy speech instead. “Singing can give entry into a broken system by engaging the right hemisphere,” says Schlaug [scienceNOW Daily News].


Using MIT, therapists taught patients how to sing words and phrases consistent with the underlying melody of speech, while tapping a rhythm with their left hands. After

Singing Therapy Can Rewire Brains of Speech-Impaired Stroke Patients | 80beats | Discover Magazine

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Sorry this is out of date but you may still find it useful in that it helps Alzheimer patients as songs are what stick in their memory when everything else disappears. You could also mention that song birds are being studied with regards to speech disorders and that people who stutter, get rid of their stammer when singing.


I of course also advocate for ordinary language development, in building up vocabulary (rhyming words for one and multi-syllable word fluency for another).


Playing musical instruments, most notably the piano, has turned out to be a lifeline for the autistic where nothing else works either. Then of course there is the relationship to maths.


That should start you off or would if this thread wasn't a couple of years out of date!:eek:

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By the way the reason it reduces crime and helps babies gain weight is that music relaxes the mind and creates the illusion of flow (continuity) where violence disrupts mental or physical growth because it leaves the being on constant alert (plants grow better in a peacetime garden, than on a battlefield).

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Plato once said that music “is a more potent instrument than any other for education”. You will find many teachers of young children who would agree with him. Recent research has found that music uses both sides of the brain, a fact that makes it valuable in all areas of development. Music affects the growth of a child’s brain academically, emotionally, physically and spiritually.


Music is academic. For some people, this is the primary reason for providing music lessons to their children. A recent study from the University of California found that music trains the brain for higher forms of thinking. Second graders who were given music lessons scored 27% higher on proportional math and fractions tests than children who received no special instruction. Research indicates that musical training permanently wires a young mind for enhanced performance.


Music is physical. Music can be described as a sport. Learning to sing and keep rhythm develops coordination. The air and wind power necessary to blow a flute, trumpet or saxophone promotes a healthy body.


Music is emotional. Music is an art form. We are emotional beings and every child requires an artistic outlet. Music may be your child’s vehicle of expression.


Music is for life. Most people can’t play soccer, or football at 70 or 80 years of age but they can sing. And they can play piano or some other instrument. Music is a gift you can give your child that will last their entire lives.




Haven't managed to get 'my' Local Music Trust Fund up yet

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This book looks interesting


The new handbook of research on music teaching and learning a project of the music educators national conference


Auteur(s) : COLWELL Richard, RICHARDSON Carol

Date de parution: 05-2002

Langue : ANGLAIS


Etat : Disponible chez l'éditeur (délai de livraison : 12 jours)



Section One: Issues and Research.

1. Policy Frameworks, Research and K-12 Schooling. 2. MENC: A Case in Point. 3. Recent Trends and Issue in Policy-making. 4. Law Research and Music Education.


Introduction: Toward an understanding of the 'Aims of Music Education'.

1. Contemporary Curriculum Practices and Their Theoretical Bases.

2. Theory, Research, and the Improvement of Music Education.

3. A Comparative Review of Human Ability Theory: Context, Structure, and Development.

4. Critical Thinking.

5. Improvisation.

6. Improvisation and Curriculum Reform.

7. Adult Education.

8. Music and Early Childhood Education.

9. Systematic Research in Studio Instruction in Music.

10. Philosophical Issues in Curriculum.

11. Educating Musically.

12. Distance Learning and Collaboration in Music Education.


Section Three: Musical Development and Learning. Introduction: Issues in Perception, Cognition, and Development. 1. Learning Theories as Roots of Current Musical Practice and Research.

2. Systematic Instruction.

3. Behavioural Research on Direct Music Instruction.

4. Self-Regulation of Musical Learning: A Social Cognitive Perspective.

5. Motivation and Achievement. 6. Developmental Characteristics of Music Learners.

7. Creative Research in Music, Visual Arts, Theater, and Dance. 8. Computer-based Technology and Music Teaching and Learning.


Section Four: Musical Cognition.

1. The Neurobiology of Music Cognition and Learning.

2. Cognitive Constraints on Music Listening.

3. The Development of Musical Abilities.

4. Making Music and Making Sense of Music: Expressive Performance and Communication.

5. Taking an Acquired Skills Perspective on Music Performance.


Section Five: Social and Cultural Contexts.

1. The Sociology of Education and Connections to Music Education Research.

2. Sociology of Music.

3. Social Psychology and Music Education.

4. Music, Culture, Curriculum and Instruction.

5. Feminism, Feminist Research and Gender Research in Music Education.

6. The Social Construction of Music Teacher Identity in Undergraduate Music Education Majors.

7. Transforming Research in Music Education History.

8. Music Transmission and Learning: A Conspectus of Ethnographic Research in Ethnomusicology and Music Education.

9. Community Music: Toward an International Overview.


Section Six: Teacher Education. Introduction: Fuzzy Teacher Education.

1. Reform-minded Music Teachers: A More Comprehensive Image of Teaching for Music Teacher Education.

2. Teaching as a Profession: Two Variations on a Theme.

3. Changing Concepts of Teacher Education.

4. Strengthening the Teaching of Music Educators in Higher Education.

5. Research by Teachers on Teacher Education.

6. Research in Music Student Teaching.

7. Professional Development.


Section Seven: Music Education Connections. Introduction: The Growing Impact of Partnerships: A Reason for Research.

1. Policy Issues Connecting Music Education and Arts Education.

2. The Evaluation of Arts Partnerships and Learning Through the Arts.

3. The 'Use and Abuse' of Arts Advocacy and its Consequences for Music Education.

4. Research in Visual Arts Education: Implications for Music Education.

5. A Review of Research in Theater, Dance, and Other Performing Arts Education: Implications for Music.


Section Eight: Neuroscience, Medicine, and Music.

1. Music and Neuroscience.

2. Performing arts Medicine. 3. Musicians' Health. Miriam Henoch, and John Hipple.


Section Nine: Instrumental Outcomes.

1. Nonmusical Outcomes of Music Education: Historical Considerations.

2. Teaching Other Subjects Through Music.

3. Research: A Foundation for Art

livre the new handbook of research on music teaching and learning a project of the music educators national conference, edition lavoisier

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It is the entitlement of every child in Australia to have access to a properly structured music curriculum, taught by a specialist teacher – from kindergarten through high school.


Why do we teach music to children?

We teach music to children so that they can make their own music, that is, compose their own music. We teach music to children so that they can have access to the enormous repertoire of music from all over the world. We teach music to children so that they can think in the abstract, develop high levels of aural imagination and engage in complex and complicated problem-solving tasks with composition. We teach music to children so that they can learn to sing and later choose an instrument they might wish to learn to play.


What do we teach to children?

We teach children a wide and varied repertoire of songs, games and dances using their natural voices and movement accompanied from time-to-time with classroom instruments, from which children learn all the skills associated with composition; notation – reading and writing; improvisation vocal and instrumental, notation – graphic and conventional. Following on from that, at an appropriate time we can introduce instrumental tuition.


When do we teach children music?

From pre-school at the earliest through songs, games and dances, and then onwards more formally from Kindergarten through high school. At an appropriate stage, every child should have access to sustained, progressive and subsidised instrumental tuition, in the context of an orchestral or ensemble program, under the guidance of an expert instrumental teacher.


Who teaches children music?

The most highly-trained specialist music teachers possible.

What are the benefits of teaching music to children?

Intrinsic benefits

Music has to be heard to be comprehended. It is abstract sound which passes through time. It requires from its listeners the highest forms of listening and the highest forms of concentration leading to the highest forms of thinking. It is capable of evoking, suggesting and implying limitless numbers of emotional reactions in the child which then play upon the mind and evoke the imagination of the child. It has the power to reach the hearts, minds and spirits of children and in so doing provides intense joy and satisfaction. Music has been and remains a powerful form of human communication in most societies on earth. Children need to have this experience as part of their humanising process.


Extrinsic benefits

Children engaged in a seriously planned and well-taught curriculum of music have advantages in all other fields of study within the school curriculum; language, reading, writing, mathematics, sciences and the like. There is a wealth of statistical information proving this. To deny a child a thorough music education is to deny the child access to the highest levels of any learning. Children with a music background listen better, concentrate longer, think more clearly, work happily in abstraction, are less distracted in class and tend to be high achievers in all fields of study. The study of musical instruments leading to performances in ensembles, orchestras and the like, provides children with unique musical and social experiences. Here, as with choral singing, children are brought to the highest levels of group participation requiring intense commitment, highly developed skills in co-ordination and a highly evolved sense of musicality and expressiveness.


Until every child in Australia has access to music education of the highest order,

our children will miss out on a critical aspect of their development and

Australia will remain culturally underdeveloped.

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