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Controlling mosquitoes.


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Trapping and killing mosquitoes seems to me the way to go to control mosquitoes populations and the diseases they spread.

 

Most commercial traps work on using CO2 as an attractant.

Most are expensive (over $1,000.00) and need re-charging with CO2.

 

I don't like "Bug Zappers" because they kill good and "bad' bugs indiscriminately.

 

The Permaculture Forums have details of a cheap, home made Japanese trap that uses Yeast as a source of CO2. Cheap and effective

The link is here:-

View topic - All natural low-tech mosquito killing machine - Permaculture discussion forum

 

I have been told that mosquitoes are attracted also to the smell of the human hormone progesterone. This is the reason women are said to be bitten more frequently than most ( but not all ) males.

The female mosquito is the only one that bites & it is said she needs progesterone in order to lay eggs.

I can't find anything about this on the web.

Does anyone know if this is true?

or

Does anyone know where we can get some progesterone to test the theory?

 

I imagine that if we got rid of mosquito larvae completely frogs and small fish would go hungry?

 

Perhaps we need to zero in on just the deadly mozzies and not disrupt the ecology by indiscriminate killing of ALL mosquitoes.

"There are more than 3,000 different types of mosquitoes in the world," Lian said. "Out of those, only 80 bite."

 

Of the 80, he added, only 15 are endemic to Taiwan.

 

"Many varieties are fascinating creatures," Lian said.

 

He gave mosquitoes of the genus Malaya or "taro mosquitoes," as one such example.

 

"I call them taro mosquitos because their larvae can often be found in the water-filled cavities formed by leaf axils of the taro plant," he said. "Like many mosquitoes, they feed on nectar, but they way they do it is unique -- they target passing ants and literally rob the nectar that's already in their gullets."

 

"Other mosquitos help us control their disease-spreading relatives," Lian said.

 

The giant mosquito, or Toxorhynchite, for example, does not bite humans.

 

"It is therefore the mosquito we use to produce the dengue fever virus," Lian said. "That way, we do not risk accidentally infecting our staff and others."

 

"Toxorhynchite larvae are also cannibalistic," Lian said. "They need to disperse their eggs as they are laid so that their offspring will not eat each other. They have been used with some success as biological control agents for other mosquito larvae."

 

The nation's foremost expert on mosquitoes confirmed what many have suspected for a long time -- that mosquitoes really do prefer biting some people more than others.

 

"There are three conditions necessary to attract mosquitoes," he said. "Carbon dioxide, body heat and lactic acid in the skin."

 

"If you have a high body temperature and sweat heavily -- which causes you to have lactic acid on your skin -- you might get more mosquito bites,"

Taipei Times - archives

 

There are heaps of newspaper links on community mosquito control in the USA for West Nile virus. All seem to involve spraying.

None say what spray is being used.

Does anyone know?

Mosquito Control Tips

Mosquito Traps, Mosquito Trap, CO2 Mosquito Trap

 

 

 

the good news so far about West Nile virus does not mean area residents should be less vigilant about mosquitoes, Brown said.

 

People should continue to check their yards for standing water -- a prime site for mosquito eggs -- and limit outside activities during dawn and dusk when mosquitoes are most active.

 

Those who do venture outside should use insect repellent such as DEET, picaridin or oil of lemon eucalyptus, according to the mosquito district's literature

News - Pigeons combat West Nile in creative sting operation - sacbee.com

Most lemon oils are said to help repel some mosquitoes.

 

Some other control methods

LOW TECH

The United Nations Foundation created the Nothing But Nets campaign 10 months ago to persuade people to donate $10 to pay for a mosquito net to prevent the spread of malaria in Africa. So far, the campaign has raised at least $4.2-million from more than 4,000 participants who have used the campaign's Web site to make an online donation, form a fund-raising — or "Netraiser" — team, or join a team created by someone they know.How can I help?

Send a net and save a life.You can save a life by making a $10 donation at

Nothing But Nets Campaign. It’s that easy, and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation will match your donation, net for net.

http://www.nothingbutnets.net/files/CampaignBackgrdr_Final.pdf

Tried three email address for this Org. all bounced. Bit of a worry.

I asked

Are the nests you distribute impregnated with chlorinated hydrocarbons such as DDT or organophosphates?

Community Mobilization: Chronicle Of Philanthropy Article

back to the mosquitoes. At the home show we found this great new system that uses natural oils to repel or kill mosquitoes (you can choose straight cedar oil to repel them or use a blend of several other oils that will kill them instead). The system consists of a large drum, tubing, and little teeny nozzles that are connected to it and they can build the little nozzles right into the soffit area of our house so you can’t even see them. It is on a timer and sprays the atomized solution out every so often depending on need. Instead of drawing every mosquito for miles like the propane type “mosquito magnet” things do, this serves to kill just the ones in our area and/or repel them.

 

The best part as far as I am concerned is that you don’t have to fuss with it much as the drum will last at least three months, possibly longer depending on how many nozzles are installed. So there is no lugging propane tanks around to get them filled. And the stuff is environmentally safe. It supposedly will not harm beneficial insects and has even been proven safe to frogs and toads. I wouldn’t want to hurt the poor toads!

Tortoise Hollow » Buggy solutions

 

This inexpensive trap looks OK

Anyone any first hand experience of traps?

The Natural Attractant Mosquito Trap. at Hammacher Schlemmer

The Natural Attractant Mosquito Trap.

Winner of an IENA award for invention, this is the superior insect trap that uses no pesticides, yet mimics the natural conditions of human habitation by emitting light, warmth, and carbon dioxide to attract, trap, and kill nuisance insects, unlike propane gas systems that require refills, or electrocution systems that pose sanitation problems by releasing pathogens into the air when an insect is disintegrated.

The carbon dioxide attractant is generated when warm ultraviolet rays from two flourescent bulbs irradiate the traps funnel which is coated with titanium dioxide; carbon dioxide is the same gas expelled by humans during respiration and is the primary source of attraction for mosquitoes.

Once insects enter the funnel at the upper par t of the trap, they are suctioned and immobilized into the traps retaining cage by a quiet fan where they remain until they die of starvation.

The trap has a range of 21,780' sq., and it can be used indoors our outdoors; plugs into AC. 12 3/4" H x 10" Diam. (3 1/2 lbs.)

 

Item 73717 ................... $129.95

 

 

 

HIGH TECH

Green-Eyed Monster?

 

If you ever spot a green-eyed mosquito, try not to swat it. Those fluorescent peepers belong to a genetically modified malaria-resistant strain. Malaria kills a million people every year, but also affects the health of the mosquitoes that pass it on. The modified mosquitoes should therefore be fitter, and so out-compete their disease-carrying cousins.

The research, described in the early online edition of the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), uses a genetically engineered strain of malaria-resistant mosquito to out-compete natural mosquitoes when fed malaria-infected blood.

 

Mauro T. Marrelli, Chaoyang Li, Jason L. Rasgon, and Marcelo Jacobs-Lorena introduced equal numbers of mosquitoes genetically engineered to be resistant to malaria into natural mosquito populations. They found that after nine generations, "70% of the mosquitoes were transgenic versus 50% at the beginning of the experiment."

Genetically engineered mosquitoes could help control malaria

 

I am told kerosene or cooking oil works as a larvacide?

Anyone know for sure?

 

Mosquito Larvicides

Larviciding is the application of insecticides targeted at immature mosquitoes (the larvae or pupae). These mosquito control systems are applied to bodies of water harboring the larvae. However, since larvae do not usually occupy the entire body of water, larvicides are applied only where the larvae reside (usually the areas near the shoreline of the lake, stream, or ditch). Larvicides differ from adulticides in that they are directed at a limited targeted area (i.e. the body of water and often only that area where the larvae grow and mature).

Mosquito Control, Mosquito Control System, Mosquito Control Product
The American Mosquito Control Association is an international, scientific association dedicated to providing leadership, information, and education leading to the enhancement of health and quality of life through the suppression of mosquitoes and other vector transmitted diseases. Founded in 1935, membership extends to more than 50 countries, and includes individuals and public agencies engaged in mosquito control, mosquito research and related activities.

 

For more information about AMCA or the 73rd Annual Meeting, contact: 15000 Commerce Parkway, Suite C, Mt. Laurel NJ 08054; phone: 856-439-9222; fax: 856-439-0525; email: [email protected].org or visit the Web site at American Mosquito Control Association.

PCT Online :: News :: American Mosquito Control Association Annual Meeting Set for April 1-5

 

Australian Traps $AUD600-$900.

Perhaps concils could invest in these in outdoor area where people gather?

What is "octenol" attractant made from?

Mosquito Traps Australia - Product Info

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Do you want to control the mozzies in a big area, or just in your house?

 

If just in your house, my grannie done tole me a story years ago, which actually works:

 

Take the ripest tomato you can find, and slice it up into a little side-plate. Put the side-plate on your nightstand next to your bed, and voila! For some reason, mozzies detest ripe tomatoes, and they'll leave you alone.

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Minnesota supports large numbers of mosquitos. There are attempts at control of these pests but I personally am skeptical of the impact. Our farm was virtually skeet free around the house due to the large mowed lawn and the 30 acres of cattle pasture surrounding the house, the colony of barn swallows, the huge numbers of bats and the distance between us and standing water. We also kept a few minnows in the stock tank to eat the larvae. The place I live at now is loaded with the critters so bad you can hear them warming their engines up at dusk. The trees literally buzz. That said, heres some links to control methods used which gov officials claim work to some degree, with links to the impact studies done on various methods:

 

Metropolitan Mosquito Control District

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Boerseun, with you being in South Africa, tell us what they say and plan to do about mosquito control to decrease the numbers of Malaria stricken?

 

I spoke to a professor today about this. We both agreed that the reason DDT is so beneficial is that you don't have to spray daily, it's cheap and you have to be exposed to the substance in large quanities over a consitant long period to become ill. Even then it is probably 30-50 years down the road, where with malaria you could die in a few weeks, mainly from anemia right.?.

Michaelangelica, I know you said researchers are on the brink of treatment(s). What about a detergent for cleaning the DDT chemicals? Safety Kleen chemicals/products are used for oil spills, surely there is something to utilize with the mosquitocides.?.

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Boerseun, with you being in South Africa, tell us what they say and plan to do about mosquito control to decrease the numbers of Malaria stricken?

Well, to tell the truth, malaria isn't really a problem in SA. It's more to the north, up in Zim/Malawi/Mozambique-side.

 

This is not to say that there's no cases here, for instance, I picked up malaria in the late 90's, and it's so rare that my doctor sent me to a psychiatrist after I complained about insomnia that just went on and on.

The shrink sent me home after three sessions, telling me that my doctor's an idiot. I still had insomnia, and started shivering at night, too. I eventually ended up in hospital, having had all my organs seize up on me, with blood coming from every possible orifice (yechhy). So then some clever medical student decided to test for malaria as a last resort - and they found the bug and slammed it. None of the doctors recognised the symptoms, because nobody's actually seen it in my town.

 

I'd rather drink lots of quinine through gin & tonic, than spray the bush with DDT. But malaria is very uncommon in my neck o' the woods, so I can't tell you much more than that.

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Well, to tell the truth, malaria isn't really a problem in SA. It's more to the north, up in Zim/Malawi/Mozambique-side.

 

This is not to say that there's no cases here, for instance, I picked up malaria in the late 90's, and it's so rare that my doctor sent me to a psychiatrist after I complained about insomnia that just went on and on.

What were the early symptoms Boerseun?

Can a blood test pick it up early?

Do you still have to take anti-malerials?

Is Maleria in America?

 

Yes star you are right in what you say.

BUT

DDT looks cheap, but what about long term planetary, ecological effects.

Have these been factored into the price?$?

The most worrying effect is the effect CHs have on phytoplankton reproducing.

The CHs only have to float in the top micron of the earth's seas.

 

Detergents don't touch CHs this is the main problem=THEY ARE NOT BIODEGADEABLE many have half lives of 18 years or more. That + their bio-accumulation. They are being used for maleria because they last and last!

Lately we have seen that many pesticides also kill nitrogen fixing bacteria in the soil. The farmer has to buy chemical fertiliser to replace this.

 

Eventually CHs (Chlorinated Hydrocarbons) spread out across the planet so no-one gets a hospitalizing-toxic dose.

No one knows the long term effectsof small amounts on mammals.

Whales for example are full of CHs.

Cetaceans don't have good biological mechanisms for dealing with these chemicals.We can't excrete them either (Sorry women can).

 

In fact, although it is said, EVENTUALLY CHs break down, no -one has shown what many break down into.

DDT breaks down into a more problematical DDE.

Even our finest analytical tools often cannot detect environmental levels of some (used to be the case with Toxaphene -a real CH witches brew-don't know if this is still the case)

 

What about growing your own Neem, Pyrethrum, Quassia or many other biodegradable pesticides? So you have to spend a bit more time growing and spraying.So? How much time do you need? (Even the artemesia that kills the parasite can be grown and taken as a tea!)

Do Africans want to save time at the expense of their environments, soil, health and export markets?

Who is saving who's time?

Where does the $ stop?

Who makes the DDT?

 

Have more old fashioned remedies been tried?

The Yeast trap has to be cheap? (see permaculture link above).

 

We seem to have a "If it moves spray it!" mentality without fully exploring all the possible alternatives.

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Who makes the DDT

thought i'd go looking

 

Would you let this company go out with your daughter?

Dow CEO Andrew N. Liveris called 2005 the company's "best year ever" with operating profits of $5.4 billion, a jump of 56.5% compared with the previous year.
The Dow Chemical Company is the world's largest manufacturer of chemicals, with annual sales exceeding USD30 billion.

As the world's largest producer of chlorine, an essential component of the potential cancer-causing chemical, dioxin, Dow is undoubtedly the largest root source of dioxin on the planet.

In addition, through its subsidiary Dow AgroSciences, Dow is one of the largest producers of insecticides (Dursban), herbicides (Clincher) and fungicides, and has produced some of the most dangerous pesticides known to man, including DDT, Dursban, and 2,4,5-T, the active ingredient of Agent Orange.

Dow is now increasing its investment in genetically modified crops that can withstand high doses of its pesticides.

groundWork

Dow Chemical is currently ranked as the tenth worst corporate air polluter in the United States, releasing more than 157,000 pounds of toxins per year into American air.[10] Dow has also been linked to 96 of the United States' worst toxic waste dumps; according to Environmental Protection Agency documents, Dow is one of the top ten parties potentially responsible for Superfund toxic sites. [11]

Human Rights / Environmental Disasters

 

Dow has one of the worst environmental legacies of any major company, encompassing Agent Orange (The Dow Chemical Company - Knowmore, Asbestos, Dioxin, Dursban, DDT, Nemagon and Napalm.

 

But Dow wasn't the uncontested world leader in industrial accidents until they bought Union Carbide in 2001, and with it the legacy of the Bhopal catastrophe.

[edit]

Bhopal Disaster

The Bhopal Disaster of 1984 was the worst industrial disaster in the history of the world. It was caused by the accidental release of forty metric tons of methyl isocyanate (MIC) from a Union Carbide India, Limited (UCIL) pesticide plant located in the heart of the city of Bhopal, in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.

The Dow Chemical Company - Knowmore

 

Overview

Dow Chemical is responsible for producing some of the most infamous chemicals, from Agent Orange and napalm for use in the Vietnam War, to ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and the widely used insecticide Dursban. Dow has a history of unethical behavior, including testing its chemicals on humans and withholding information from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Union Carbide, acquired by Dow in 1999, owned the chemical plant in Bhopal, India that released methyl isocyanate and other chemicals, causing one of the worst environmental disasters in history in 1984. World Bank guidelines for private sector partnerships1 indicate that a company with a such a poor record of corporate social responsibility should not be eligible for a partnership with the Bank.

 

Damaging developing countries

Pesticide causes infertility

Dow and three other companies continued to produce and export the extremely hazardous pesticide DBCP to developing countries after it was banned in the continental U.S. in 1979. The U.S. ban occurred after DBCP, one of Pesticide Action Network's Dirty Dozen pesticides, was linked to human sterility in California.

 

PANNA: Dow Corporate Fact Sheet

 

 

Where is DDT produced? How much?

According to the Farm Chemicals Handbook 2001, DDT is

produced in India and China. Hindustan Insecticides Limited

(HIL) is the government-owned company responsible for

production in India, and Shenzhen Jiangshan Commerce and

Industry Corporation in Shenzhen produces DDT in China.5

Accurate production data are difficult to confirm. In India,

the first DDT plant was constructed in 1954. HIL is the sole

manufacturer of technical grade DDT in India, and has

capacity to produce an estimated 9,000 metric tons of DDT

per year. According to data provided by Chemexil, India

exported DDT to the following countries in 1998 and 1999:

Australia, Bangladesh, Belgium, Nepal, Israel, Italy and the

United States.6 No production or export information is available

from the Shenzhen plant in China.

Does DDT harm people?

DDT and its breakdown product DDE are classified as

"probable" human carcinogens.7 Exposure is linked to human

developmental disorders, and reproductive disorders are well

documented in animal studies.8 Recent studies have also

linked exposure to reduced lactation in nursing women, 9 and

U.S. researchers recently linked DDE levels in American

women with increased risks of premature delivery and reduced

infant birth weight.10

The IPEN Pesticide Working Group is one of

several Working Groups of the International

POPs Elimination Network. This factsheet was

developed by Working Group members Pesticide

Action Network North America and Worldwatch

Institute, with input from Red de Acción sobre

Plaguicidas y Alternativas en México, Toxics

Link India and other Working Group members.

Colleagues at World Wildlife Fund also provided

helpful input. For a full list of Working Group

members, see IPEN Welcome Page.

 

taken place.21

Does DDT work to control malaria?

Yes, when used in a focused way and in limited settings, DDT

continues to help save thousands of lives each year. At the

same time, DDT's limits and failures should be recognized.

WHO's Expert Committee on Malaria still finds use of DDT

acceptable but has noted that it "should only be used in well

defined, high or special risk situations." The Pan American

Health Organization (PAHO) has expressed strong reservations

about broad-scale application of DDT for malaria control,

and reports that indoor spraying has not been helpful in

interrupting malaria transmission in situations of political or

social instability.22

Do mosquitoes develop resistance to DDT?

Yes, mosquitoes develop resistance to DDT. The lack of

spraying in parts of Africa for a number of years may make it

possible to use DDT effectively again, but this prospect may

weaken over time as DDT exposure creates new resistance. In

India, vector species are resistant to DDT and malathion both

when used separately and when sprayed together.23

How do countries control malaria without DDT?

Countries that have moved away from DDT use for malaria

control use a combination of drugs, bednets treated with synthetic

pyrethroids, and applying chemicals to breeding areas or

houses. The World Wildlife Fund has documented the experience

in the Kheda district in India, where non-chemical approaches

were demonstrated to be cost-effective. In the Philippines

the national program has relied on treated bed nets and

spraying of alternative chemicals. 24

How is malaria controlled in India and Mexico?

INDIA: India, which spends one-third of its current national

health budget on malaria control, is an important case study to

understand that the effectiveness of DDT is on the wane. The

rural mosquito vector that transmits 65 percent of India's malaria

is resistant to DDT (and also to two other

-- http://www.panna.org/campaigns/docsPops/docsPops_020501.pdf

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Would you let this company go out with your daughter?

One at a time, or the whole company at once? :) Er...

 

Coming back to your previous question, the early symptoms was insomnia (like in total insomnia, no shut-eye at all) for about a week. During the day, I felt fine - no problems at all. A little fuzzy in the head which I blamed on not sleeping. After about five or so days, the shivers started. Also only at night - during the day, nothing wrong. But at night, you can take a hot bath, the water's still too cold. You can sit in front of the hottest fire you can find, and still pile logs on. Your electric blanket is too cold on full blast. You get the idea. And this was middle summertime. And you sweat like a pig. But only at nighttime. During the day, everything's hunky-dory. No fever, sweat, shivers, nothing. After about the second week of this, I started peeing blood as my kidneys seized up. A day or two later, the pee turned black. Little gross, but seeing as you asked, at the same time, I started crapping blood. Black, dead blood. The black stool and black urine is where the term "black-water fever" came from for malaria.

 

Nevertheless, about another day or two later, my kidneys, liver, basically every other organ I have, seized up, and I started bleeding from my nose and gums, and even eyes. From there on, it would have taken about 24 to 48 hours and I would've been as dead as a doornail.

 

The doctors have actually phoned my parents, telling them that I've got about 48 hours left to live. And they called all my friends to come and say goodbye to me. Nobody told me about it. I just found all my family and friends around me, and I thought it was great. But I was so stoned on meds it didn't really matter. The docs at the intensive care ward they parked me in actually thought I was in the last stages of some as-yet unknown form of blood cancer.

 

But when the clever student found the malaria bugs in my blood, and they gave me the proper meds for it, I was right as rain within 24 hours.

 

...and that's my whole point:

 

Stop even thinking about bringing back DDT. Malaria isn't as bad as they make it out to be. What is bad, is the lack of proper identification mechanisms for the disease, and medicine. If, for instance, a little urine test strip can be manufactured that can test for malaria, and access to medicine can be arranged, then I suppose it'll just be "one of those things". You wake up with the shivers, you go pee on a little stick, you see you've got malaria, you swig a pill, you go back to bed. End of story. Distributing DDT all over the world will be at least as expensive as distributing meds.

 

Lasting effects? Not really. But my liver and kidneys look like swiss cheese, and will give me all the hell when I'm a few decades older, I guess.

 

But it only looks like swiss cheese because of late identification.

 

Malaria is by no means a terminal disease. What's killing people in the Third World is not malaria mozzies, but the lack of timely treatment.

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Boerseun, Wow! Thank you for sharing and I am really sorry you experienced that. I am glad you are ok. I am curious, how and what did they treat you with? Meds and so forth.

Oh and Michaelangelica, I checked out the website you posted for the American Mosquitos Control Association. That was interesting, I don't recall having ever heard about this association. I am still deliberating if I want to spend $30.00 on a membership. I'll see.

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Originally Posted by Michaelangelica

There are heaps of newspaper links on community mosquito control in the USA for West Nile virus. All seem to involve spraying.

None say what spray is being used.

Does anyone know?

 

Well you asked for it and here it is.:doh: this is what is/was used in Florida.

 

Mosquito Information Website - Mosquito Management - Integrated Mosquito Management (IMM)

 

MOSQUITO CONTROL INSECTICIDES: PAST AND PRESENT

The synthetic pesticides used for mosquito control over the years have varied greatly in structure, toxicity, persistence, and environmental impact. These chemicals include the following: Organochlorines -- Today, no organochlorine pesticides are used for mosquito control in Florida. However, methoxychlor is still labeled for mosquito control use. Some organochlorines that were formerly used for mosquito control because of their high arthropod toxicity included DDT, BHC, chlordane, heptachlor, aldrin, and dieldrin. Organochlorines are relatively non-soluble in water and very persistent in soils; they bioaccumulate in fat and other lipids (lipophilic). Largely, it was these lipophilic properties that resulted in organochlorines no longer being labeled for use in the U.S. Organochlorines continue to be used for agricultural and mosquito control in developing countries. Many soils and rivers are still contaminated with residues of the most persistent of these compounds (i.e., DDT, endrin, dieldrin) (White & Krynitsky 1986), and they continued to be detected in wildlife a decade ago (Risebrough 1986).

 

Organophosphates (OP) -- Although OPs are generally less persistent than organochlorines, some have higher acute toxicities, both for mammals and other organisms (Pimentel & Lehman 1993). Currently recommended OP compounds are the adulticides malathion, fenthion and naled and the larvicide temephos. These compounds have relatively low mammalian toxicity and most usually break down rapidly; however, some breakdown products are also toxic.

 

Pyrethroids -- Pyrethroid insecticides are based on the chemical structure of a group of naturally occurring compounds, pyrethrums, derived from a flower native to Africa. Products extracted from these flowers have been used for thousands of years and are still used today but are extremely expensive. Artificially created pyrethroids used today in Florida for mosquito control are resmethrin, permethrin, and sumithrin. Synthetic pyrethroids are more persistent than natural pyrethrums and in a few cases are more persistent than OPs. Pyrethroids are broad-spectrum toxicants that are very toxic to fish, aquatic organisms and most other cold-blooded animals. Due to their high and broad range of toxicity to insects, they may affect beneficial species, thereby lessening natural controls, and for some pests may actually increase the need for further chemical control (Edwards 1993). However, to date, a need for increased chemical control because of pyrethroid use for mosquito control has not been demonstrated.

 

Carbamates -- No carbamates are currently used for mosquito control in Florida. The only carbamate formerly used for Florida mosquito control was propoxur. Carbamates are broadspectrum, tend to be more persistent than organophosphates in soil, and thus have the potential for considerable environmental impact (Edwards 1993).

 

Insect Growth Regulators (IGR) -- IGRs interfere with insect development typically resulting in larval or pupal mortality. For more than 20 years, the insect growth regulator methoprene (Altosid®) has been a widely used mosquito larvicide in Florida and elsewhere in the world. Methoprene is specific to immature insect larvae, especially dipterans, which include mosquitoes. Methoprene has extremely low mammalian toxicity. Diflubenzuron (Dimilin®), a chitin inhibitor, has much broader non-target impacts than methoprene, especially on marine and freshwater arthropods such as shrimp and crabs. Therefore, Dimilin is severely restricted to only certain allowable sites. Due to the potential for non-target impacts, it is not widely used.

 

Biologicals -- Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) and B. sphaericus (Bs) are both bacterial larvicides (acting as stomach poisons) that are quite specific to mosquito larvae and a few other aquatic dipterans. Bti is used worldwide. Bs is newly labeled and only effective in freshwater habitats. Both are non-toxic to mammals and exhibit few or no non-target effects.

 

:) I can get more info you like.:hihi:

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One at a time, or the whole company at once? :confused: Er...

 

Co

Stop even thinking about bringing back DDT. Malaria isn't as bad as they make it out to be. What is bad, is the lack of proper identification mechanisms for the disease, and medicine. If, for instance, a little urine test strip can be manufactured that can test for malaria, and access to medicine can be arranged, then I suppose it'll just be "one of those things". You wake up with the shivers, you go pee on a little stick, you see you've got malaria, you swig a pill, you go back to bed. End of story. Distributing DDT all over the world will be at least as expensive as distributing meds.

 

Lasting effects? Not really. But my liver and kidneys look like swiss cheese, and will give me all the hell when I'm a few decades older, I guess.

 

But it only looks like swiss cheese because of late identification.

 

Malaria is by no means a terminal disease. What's killing people in the Third World is not malaria mozzies, but the lack of timely treatment.

the lack of timely treatment.[

Any suggestions?

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  • 2 weeks later...
Mosquitoes and Wetlands

 

There is a public perception that wetlands are breeding grounds for mosquitoes.

 

While nearly any open water can be a breeding ground for mosquitoes, research shows that properly designed and managed wetlands with balanced ecosystems and natural predators will control mosquito larvae as part of the natural food chain.

 

Melbourne Water is committed to ensuring that its wetlands are designed and managed to minimise the presence of mosquitoes.

Mosquitoes

 

There are more than 250 species of mosquitoes found in Australia, but only a few of these bite humans.

 

Mosquitoes like still, protected water systems, such as household swimming pools or other shallow water bodies.

 

Adult mosquitoes have a very short lifespan (from seven days to a month). However, eggs may remain dormant for up to one year, hatching when flooded with water.

. . .

 

Melbourne Water : Publications : Fact Sheets : Drainage : Mosquitoes and Wetlands

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these are some links I thought you might fine interesting. :)

 

Bloodfed Culex annulirostris, the major vector of arboviruses in inland regions of Australia.

 

Mosquito photos

 

 

 

What you can do to help 'Stop the Bite':

 

Mosquito Control

 

The following are steps you can take to help 'Stop the Bite' from occurring in your backyard:

 

Trash should be placed in a garbage can with a lid. Buckets, cans and other small containers are favored breeding grounds for many mosquito species.

Unused wading pools should be turned over or stored in a dry place to avoid breeding mosquitoes.

Plastic tarps can trap small pockets of water that will breed mosquitoes. They should be checked weekly and any water dumped.

Bird baths should be cleaned and filled with fresh water at least once a week.

Gutters should be cleaned regularly, especially in the spring and fall when leaves and other debris can quickly clog them.

Flower pot drip trays should be inspected often to check for developing mosquito larvae.

Swimming pools must be maintained at the proper chlorine level throughout the summer season. Pool covers that collect water should be drained, flushed regularly or treated with chlorine to stop mosquito breeding. Abandoned pools should be taken down (for above ground pools) or filled (inground).

Old tires should be brought to an automotive store that can properly dispose of them. In fact, tires are the favorite breeding grounds for many of the mosquito species that transmit various diseases to humans throughout the world!

 

 

Mosquitoes breed faster when temperatures are high. Low temperatures and low humidity cause slow breeding and higher mortality rates.

 

Mosquito Breeding

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interesting links

 

 

Mosquito Eating (Larvivorous) Fish

 

Hypseliotris compressa

The Empire Gudgeon, Hypseliotris compressa. A native fish, found in freshwater to brackish esturaries in the coastal drainage systems of the northern 2/3 of Australia. Approx. 9-10cm in length.

Pseudomugil signifer

The Pacific Blue-Eye, Pseudomugil signifer. Native to the east coast of Australia and found in fast flowing streams and brackish esturaries from Cooktown in Qld to southern NSW. Approx. 2-2.5 cm in length.

 

Gambusia holbrooki

The mosquito fish, Gambusia holbrooki. This imported species has become a major pest in waterways in most eastern states of Australia and is also found in parts of NT and WA. It inhabits both inland and coastal basins as well as brackish waters. Approx. 2-2.5 cm in length.

Mosquito photos

How many species of mosquitoes are there?

In Australia there are around 400 species but only approximately 10 are commonly abundant and represent a serious pest threat because of their nuisance biting or their ability to transmit disease.

So when we kill them all, what are we doing to the ecosystem?

Tripteroides magnesiana: (NT, QLD) a small attractive tropical mosquito which breeds in treeholes. The adults will bite humans although it is not known to transmit any agent of disease.

Mosquitoes of Australia

Mosquito Attractants

. . .unwashed naked children were more attractive to An. gambiae, An. funestus and An. pharoensis than naked children who had washed.

Dirty clothes in a hut attracted more mosquitoes than an empty hut.

 

Individual variation in attractiveness to mosquitoes was shown conclusively by Khan (1965), who was able to isolate 1 person very attractive and 3 people very unattractive to Ae. aegypti by observing both bloodfeeding and probing reponses.

 

Acree (1968) attributed differences in attractivity to the amount of lactic acid produced by the subject.

Males were more attractive than females and babies are not very attractive compared with men

 

Many substances have been tested as possible mosquito attractants. Rudolfs (1922) tested numerous substances using an apparatus with two chambers and a connecting glass tube. The following table shows a partial list of his results (only positive responses are included in the following table:

 

Substance Attractive Fed cold Fed warm

Alanine (crystals) Y

Ammonia Y

Beef Boullion Y

Cholesterol Y X

Cystine X

Glutamic Acid X X

Glycerin X X

Hemoglobin Y X X

Oleic Acid and Benzoic Acid X X

Peptone Y X X

Phenylalanine Y X X

Sugar solution X

Tyrosine X

Urine X X

Vaseline Y X X

 

Brown (1951) found both diethyl ether and gasoline to be significantly attractive to mosquitoes.

 

CO2

 

Gillies (1980) reviewed the effects of CO2 on the host-seeking response and concluded that the role of CO2 is still poorly understood

Several workers have been unable to show a response to CO2.

 

Lactic acid

Acree et al. (1968) identified lactic acid as a mosquito attractant after it was isolated from human arms through thin-layer chromatography. They found that the L isomer of lactic acid was 5 times as attractive as the D isomer. In addition, they considered CO2 essential for lactic acid to have an effect on mosquito attraction

 

Octenol

1-octen-3-ol (octenol) is an ingredient in the "synthetic ox odor" used to attract tsetse flies. Octenol has been shown to attract more Aedes taeniorhynchus, Anopheles spp. and Wyeomyia mitchellii mosquitoes when used together with CO2, though each attractant is capable of attracting mosquitoes on its own

Some others here Mosquito Host-Seeking: a Partial Review

Same page

Light

Seaton and Lumsden (1941) found that illumination of 0.5 meter-candles reduced the number of mosquitoes taking a blood meal by 50% below the number that fed in the dark.

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