At present, the big bang cosmology cannot explain galaxy formation and can not make its statements consistent, it is really in a disastrous state, the property of pseudo science is getting more and more apparent,and more and more scholars are abandoning the doctrine. The real universe is changing gradually and continuously, no matter what galaxies or objects keep in continuous change, however big bang cosmology belongs to the catastrophic theory which can not describe and reflect these actual process of change, the big bang theory dooms lumpish and useless, will certainly be replaced by the gradualistic cosmology. However, do not go to find the problem from general relativity itself, instead from another fresh road trying to start the establishment of alternative models of the big bang theory is superficial, at all can't be replaced and at best coexist. Chinese scholar by modifying the Einstein gravitational field equation complete the replacement to the big bang theory, clearly established the gradualistic cosmology, has improved and extended the the theory and application of general relativity. Many industry insiders believe that if general relativity continues to stop or grow complacent it will probably be overthrown or replaced. The new modified field equations continues to have the simplicity and elegancy of the original equation, unlike other modifications that only in order to cater to the cosmological application, free added items to field equation so that cannot go back to Newton's law of gravitation in spherically symmetric gravitational field in the distance, so such modified field equations can no longer continue to be called gravitational field equation because it didn’t have contact with gravity again. Jian liang yang’s pioneer paper “Modification of Field Equation and Return of Continuous Creation----- Galaxies Form from Gradual Growth Instead of Gather of Existent Matter”was published in international journal. The new alternative model of the big bang theory abandons the moment creation and accepts the concept of negative pressure which makes naturally the mass of celestial bodies increase and new matter generate constantly in celestial bodies, and today is the key to understand the past and the future, on logic more reasonable, can more rationally explain the observed facts. The new theory shows that not only the space between galaxies is expanding but also galaxies themselve and the average density of the universe remains unchanged, and also can explain accurately in the solar system the observed gravitational anomalies, such as the other backward movement of unknown cause of the moon after considering the tide effect, and the observed change of length of day is inconsistent with the tidal theory, and the radius of the earth is detected to increase 0.2-1 mm by the monitoring satellites each year, and the increase of distance between the sun and the earth. Obviously the continuous expansion of universe is the need of material’s generation, and vividly interprets that the space-time and matter are an indivisible unity. Besides the above distinguishing features the new gradualistic theory of universe has the following characteristics:

1. the modified field equation requires the pressure is negative, some people may feel uncomfortable, however this is actually a kind of secular bias. In fact both classical mechanics and relativity don’t really reject negative pressure, only appears in the equation of motion the pressure’s derivative in classical mechanics and the size of the pressure can be any value, do not rule out the negative. In relativity not only the size of the pressure but also pressure’s derivative appears in the equation of motion, which requires pressure value can not be arbitrary, but isn’t ruled out the negative pressure yet. It is the emergence of negative pressure that leads to the continuous generation of material, as the field equation is applied to an object dm + P dv = 0, the increase of mass of celestial bodies comes from the work done by the negative pressure, new matter arises doesn’t mean the infringement to the law of energy conservation.

2. Although galaxies or objects increase, the angular velocity of their rotation or revolution keeps constant, i.e. periodic invariant, like using a magnifying glass to watch the circular motion, not only the radius of the orbit but also the speed is amplified and the period constant, all energy come still from the work done by the negative pressure. Orbital expansion can completely be derived from geodesic equations rather than additional assumptions. The new theory has important guiding significance in solar physics, space physics, geophysical and seismic genesis and so on

3. Similar to the big bang, the new theory still explain the microwave background radiation for comprehensive reflection of light after red shift emitted from far bodies whose distances can not be distinguished in our instrument, but do not think from so-called final scattering surface. Compared with vast space galaxies amount to molecules, these molecules form extremely thin and deep gas, in other words our universe is equivalent to a cavity, so the light from far has black-body spectrum. But the big bang can not rationally explain the black-body spectrum, in the big bang frame universal temperature is decreased, the so-called thermal equilibrium didn’t exist at all.

4. The rapid generation of matter (such as the big bang) is contrary to common sense, but slow generation is not contrary to common sense, should be allowed, and any absolutization to physical laws is never a scientific attitude.

5. Space-time is infinite, no longer rely on the so-called critical density, the universe's expansion and contraction cycle, alternately, the scale factor meets the sine function R(t)=Csinat, excluding the irrational expansion: big bang --- decelerating ---- inflation --- decelerating ---accelerating ....... The new relation between distance and redshift derived from the modified field equations is highly consistent with observations, and universal expansion is still decelerated and the shoddy conclusion that expansion of universe is accelerating no longer exists. In the new theory sometime in the past the scale factor R (t) =0, at which mass of any body was zero, the absolute temperature of universe was also zero, with mass to increase temperature gradually rose to meet mass-luminosity ratio. That is to say, universal temperature is higher and higher but not lower and lower, and the big bang fireball didn’t exist at all.

6. The new theory has unified the dark matter and dark energy, the modified gravitational field equation is including all effects of dark matter and dark energy and is a complete field equations. Due to negative pressure has the multiple properties of pressure, dark matter and dark energy, dark matter and dark energy arise no longer, all effects of dark matter and dark energy are fully absorbed in the negative pressure. The more important thing is that the negative pressure can be solved through the gravitational field equation, so reduce three cosmological parameters.

7. The continuous expansion of the universe and the continuous creation of matter are inseparable, the expansion of the universe is not reciprocal retreat of galaxies in existing space, but rather continuous creation of space between galaxies, since the universe can create space, it can also create matter. The simultaneous creation of space and matter is an inseparable manifestation of the two. It is the expansion of the universe that provides a fundamental source of energy for all things in the universe

**Edited by xps13579, 28 August 2017 - 07:32 AM.**