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Why are we so sure that there is a need for dark matter?


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Weak force


The weak force is one of the four fundamental forces that govern all matter in the universe (the other three are gravity, electromagnetism and the strong force). While the other forces hold things together, the weak force plays a greater role in things falling apart, or decaying. 

The weak force, or weak interaction, is stronger than gravity, but it is only effective at very short distances

W bosons are electrically charged and are designated by their symbols: W+ (positively charged) and W (negatively charged). The W boson changes the makeup of particles. By emitting an electrically charged W boson, the weak force changes the flavor of a quark, which causes a proton to change into a neutron, or vice versa.

Experiments to find W and Z bosons led to a theory combining the electromagnetic force and the weak force into a unified "electroweak" force in the 1960s. 

Therefore, the weak force which works on electrically charged particles should also be considered as a Sub-EM force


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The four fundamental forces of nature


"The four fundamental forces act upon us every day, whether we realize it or not. From playing basketball, to launching a rocket into space, to sticking a magnet on your refrigerator - all the forces that all of us experience every day can be whittled down to a critical quartet: Gravity, the weak force, electromagnetism, and the strong force. These forces govern everything that happens in the universe.

I claim that there is only One fundamental force in the Universe

That force is Electromagnetism force.

All the three other forces: Gravity, the weak force and the strong force are Sub-Electromagnetism force.

Edited by Dandav
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Quark–gluon plasma (QGP) or quark soup is an interacting localized assembly of quarks and gluons at thermal (local kinetic) and (close to) chemical (abundance) equilibrium. The word plasma signals that free color charges are allowed. In a 1987 summary, Léon van Hove pointed out the equivalence of the three terms: quark gluon plasma, quark matter and a new state of matter.

Quark–gluon plasma[17][18] was detected for the first time in the laboratory at CERN in the year 2000.[19][20][21]

In the Big Bang theory, quark–gluon plasma filled the entire Universe before matter as we know it was created

Sorry, there is no need for the Big Bang for that quark–gluon plasma

The plasma is there Infront of our eyes in the accretion disc:


Accretion is one of the most fundamental processes in the cosmos.

Accretion is the inevitable result of gravitational forces operating on all scales, and on all types of material — gas, dust, plasma, even dark matter. 

Telescope is the hot, glowing plasma in the accretion disk surrounding it.




Therefore, our scientists clearly see the plasma in the accretion disc.

That plasma is exactly the same Quark–gluon plasma (QGP) or quark soup that is an interacting localized assembly of quarks and gluons at thermal (local kinetic) and (close to) chemical (abundance) equilibrium.

Based on that Quark–gluon plasma (QGP) or quark soup in the accretion disc new atoms and molecular are created by the mighty power of the SMBH EM force.

Our scientists wish to believe that the accretion disc accretes stars and clouds:

"But this changes when a collapsing cloud heats up and begins to generate plasma. Because plasma is electrically charged, it is linked to the magnetic field: As it moves, it drags the magnetic field lines with it. As the cloud collapses further and begins to form an accretion disk, the magnetic field becomes wound up by the disk’s rotation. The magnetic field also becomes stronger as the field lines bunch together."

Unfortunately, they are totally wrong. Nothing really falls at the accretion disc from outside.

However, they are fully correct in the following message:

"Accretion creates everything there is: galaxies, stars, planets, and eventually, us. It is the reason the universe is filled with a whole bunch of somethings instead of a whole lot of nothing."

The fact that matter tends to glom together may seem intuitive. But to scientists, accretion remains a mysterious topic, filled with unanswered questions:

For instance: Why do some stellar nurseries form a few massive stars instead of lots of smaller ones? What causes so much accreting material to ultimately fall inward onto its central object, instead of just circling it forever? And how do space rocks ultimately stick together to form planets instead of just bouncing off each other?

No one knows the definitive answers to any of these questions yet, but there are some theories gaining traction — and evidence.

Yes, I know the answer and I have introduced the evidences

The SMBH' accretion disc is the place where new molecules are created by the mighty EM force of the SMBH.

Those molecules would be ejected outwards from the outer edge of the accretion disc:

"All of these magnetic field lines then act as highways for plasma to escape the strong magnetic field: Following the field lines, the charged particles zip away from the accretion disk into space. This MHD wind carries angular momentum away from the disk — and this, astronomers suspect, helps the cloud collapse into a star."

Those molecules would fall back into the galactic disc and form the G gas clouds around the SMBH. Due to the mighty SMBH' gravity force the matter in the gas cloud would be collapsed into multi star system including planets and moons for each new born star. 

Our full Solar system - the Sun with its planets and moons had been created there in one of those G gas clouds around the SMBH from the same new molecules which had been zip away from the accretion disk into space and in the same day!

Edited by Dandav
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