It is no concession. ... My point is that tectonic plate theory predicted that we should find water in the lower layers that was dragged down by subduction, and now analysis of a large amount of seismic data has confirmed the prediction.
I was referring to Wysession's comment that water was required to lubricate the tectonic mechanism of convection. Tectonics does have other problems however which I linked to in posts one
. When I cover the mantle and core, I can discuss tectonics in more detail.
Thank you for the fuller response. I am still somewhat disappointed that you are avoiding addressing what I currently believe to be one fatal flaw in the theory, by simply offering an alternate explanation of the character of sedimentary rocks.
I'm not avoiding anything. I just haven't got there yet. In my first reply to you (post #16
), I mentioned that I have around a dozen more essays to put forth regarding this theory. Try to realize that some of my other responsibilities may supercede this thread and please refrain from insinuating that I am avoiding certain points. Also know that I greatly appreciate all your input as it forces me to dig deeper into the subject than I would have otherwise. And I apologize for taking so long to respond.
The very precise textural, structural and compositional character of sedimentary rocks matches what we see being formed in today's environments. Different environment - different sediment. How is it that the mechanism you propose - super critical steam extraction - would mimic much more complex sedimentary and diagenetic processes?
SCE is merely the mechanism of sediment diversity. Transportation and deposition are a result of the sum of all processes involved in the event as well as all geologic processes occurring thereafter. What follows are logical processes that would stem from the Hydroplate scenario which will help describe the world that we should expect to see as a result.
When, the subterranean water began to decompress, it precipitated the atomized constituents of basalt and granite somewhat evenly beneath the crust because SCW expands like a gas. But the ruptured granite plate would undergo fluctuation and deformity from the movement beneath and cause erratic changes in the pressure of the water below. Re-dissolution and re-precipitation resulted in a cyclic and sporadic fashion.
The particles in solution would escape with the water, of course, while the already precipitated particles would be carried to the surface by the force of the eruption along with whole chunks of basalt and granite. Below five miles of rock, the pressure is so great that granite deforms like putty. Therefore, fluctuating water pressure scoured out portions of granite, basalt, and various constituents thereof. At the edges of the fissure, the lower half of the ten-mile-thick granite crust continually oozed out into the ejection stream from the shear weight of rock above where it also was quickly eroded and lifted by the water.
The resulting aqueous ejecta and rubble initially achieved escape velocity. But as the force of this eruption gradually diminished, aqueous ejecta merely lingered in orbit for varying periods of time, agglomerated somewhat in the low gravity environment, and fell back to earth at temperatures near absolute zero. The larger agglomerates were better able to sustain these cold core temperatures during re-entry than the smaller ones and served to cool the earth while the smaller projectiles melted and/or evaporated.
Therefore, accumulation of this ejecta on the earth's surface served to cool as well as muffle the latter part the eruption. Strong currents of hot and muddy subterranean water contended with the plummeting ice and rock as the subterranean release continued underwater in various spots along the new continental edges. As this subterranean water depleted, the granite crust effectively 'deflated' and sank down through the tossing waves. Portions of this receding granite came into contact with the basalt beneath, generating friction as it slid, and created pockets of mineral- and moisture-rich magma. Massive tsunamis which were unimpeded by shorelines encircled the globe multiple times. The wave action generated cyclic pressure changes underwater which acted on the new sediments through a process called liquefaction.
Normally, liquefaction refers to the liquefying of already deposited sediment through earthquakes or wave action. But in our scenario, the sediments were not yet deposited but were still suspended in the flood water and settling during the liquefaction event. Giant wave action, however, characterized more clearly as wandering swells of smaller waves, caused a cyclic compression on the sediments as they were slowly deposited onto the whole surface of the earth. The weight of the peaks of these waves compressed water down through the settling sediment and into the crustal surface. Conversely, the troughs of the waves weighed less and allowed the water below to decompress and flow upward, which then lifted particles to varying degrees according to their individual physical properties.
When the pore pressure between particles exceeds the contact pressure, separation occurs, and a solid structure begins to act like a liquid, such as quicksand. This is called liquefaction and commonly occurs as a cyclic process of suspension/compression that allows repeated, yet deliberate migration of constituents based on surface area, granularity, specific gravity, etc. through the overwhelming of contact pressure by pore pressure. In the case of earthquakes, we can see water which is lighter than sediment rising to the surface (sand volcanos), while buildings which are heavier than sediment sink down into it.What is soil liquefactionLiquefaction During the Flood
Given the amount of eroded basalt and granite, as well as precipitated minerals, the flood water probably rode atop a hot sludge very similar to quicksand. Wave peaks pushed down on the sediments, compressing soft particles such as clay, and loading sediment pores with pressure while also reinforcing the contact pressure. As the wave troughs passed, the contact pressure decreased and the stored pore pressure was released. This pressure change sent water back up through the deposited sediment, lifting each particle. Wave action also caused water to oscillate laterally as pressure flowed away from the wave peaks and toward the troughs. So the wave action not only sifted the sediments according to their physical properties, but also 'kneaded' the sediments laterally.Wave MotionSwell (ocean) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Particles with similar physical attributes experienced similar lifting force, or drag, from liquefaction, and 'travelled' as a group. The differing sediments in suspension, therefore, gradually separated from each other because they experienced different amounts of drag. At the onset of a compression cycle, particles were squeezed together and the pores were reloaded with pressure. Liquefaction, then, effectively sorted the sediments vertically according to their physical attributes, through the upward flow of decompression, into sharply defined layers that we know today as the strata. Some under-developed strata, which resemble graded bedding, are the interrupted 'proto-splitting' of a stratum into smaller strata. Other strata were over-developed in the sense that sediments subdivided so many times as to leave repetitive sequences of strata called rhythmic bedding.
Another interesting characteristic of the liquefaction process is the forming of water lenses. Particles that exhibited higher resistance to upward flow rose higher from the absorption of more upward force. So as particles were sorted, decompressing water flowed around the sediments beneath at a noticeably faster rate than around the sediments above. Therefore, when the water pushed up through these newly layered sediments, the resistance would 'always' increase from changes in granularity. This change in velocity formed bottlenecks, and produced a buildup of upward flowing water between layers which lifted upper layers slightly above the lower ones. These lenses appeared intrasequentially, meaning they formed through continual subdivision of strata, making possible the formation of rhythmic bedding mentioned in the previous paragraph.
Vegetation and animals rode upward into water lenses because the weight of suspended sediments increased the buoyancy of the water within it. Once in a lense, large objects tended to stay there because the weight of the upper layer counteracted the buoyancy of the lense beneath. However, animal carcasses that were very buoyant (or still alive) could possibly push up into and through some layers until the increasingly strickened flow of water became to weak to aid the carcass' buoyancy in overcoming the next sedimentary layer. Vegetation was not so capable of traversing the strata because it would intertwine with other vegetation soon upon entering a water lense. Moreover, the formation of a vegetation mat exaggerated the bottlenecking effect of its own lense by hindering upward flow.
The granite crust slowly contracted and thickened within the span of a few months. The thicker the granite got, the more it weighed per square mile, and the more it pushed down into the basalt below. As a result, the basalt began to deform first downward beneath the continents and then upward in between them, where the oceanic ridges are today. The upheaval of ridges in turn pushed back on the receding granite, which then sank deeper, pushing up more basalt, etc. in a continuous cycle of continental thickening. The mid-oceanic ridges are actually tensional failures caused by the expansion of the basalt. Tensional failures called fracture zones which are perpendicular to these ridges appeared due to the curvature of the earth. The somewhat consistent delineation of the ridges at fracture zones denote their order of appearance.
The enormous weight of the granite crust which initially began the contraction process was also responsible for stopping it. When isostasy was reached, the weight of the granite no longer aided the momentum of contraction, but instead countered it. This event no doubt caused an unfathomable amount of earthquaking, and the granite crust began to experience compression failures from the collision of momentum and gravity. The upper five miles of granite, the hard rock we are familiar with, faulted from compression while the lower granite simply billowed downward. Also, the arc of the continents around the curvature of the earth decreased as they shrank to occupy less of the globe's surface area. This shrinkage and flattening is responsible for the formation of the earth's mountain ranges.
And as the granite slowed, friction was transferred upward through the saturated strata which, depending on the level of lubrication, either slid easily or experienced drag. The upward transfer of friction through the layers caused deformation within and between some layers of sediment such as wedge- and cross-bedding, chevrons, etc. Lower layers experienced more friction being closer to the crust and suffered deformation similar to the granite crust beneath, while strata above slippage planes remained more horizontal, forming spectacular discontinuities such as the well-known Great Unconformity.
The saturated strata also experienced a massive, singular incident of liquefaction when the continents compressed. This time, weight of overlying water was not so much a factor as was the weight of the sediments themselves. The sediments collided toward the geographic center of the continents, squeezing most of the underground water in the opposite direction through the path of least resistance. This lateral instance of liquefaction is why horizontal strata can sometimes exhibit lateral gradation. Where water lenses still existed they were exaggerated and served as channels to extract water from the compressing sediments. Escaping currents in water lenses formed a host of stratigraphic features, such as current bedding, ripple marks, intraformational conglomerates, swash and rill marks, flute casts, etc. Fault lines and anticlines also appeared during the continental compression as well as foliations, thrust faults, and diagenetic metamorphisms.
As the contracting granite thickened, the waters began to pour off the rising continent toward the both ocean basins and continental basins. The lenses of water between the new strata began to collapse, pushing the contained water upward and outward. Obviously, during this major runoff, the newly stratified ground was still saturated and uncemented, allowing much of the surface erosion we see today to occur more quickly and easily than would normally be expected. Canyons and valleys were cut very rapidly in the soft earth. Niagara Falls has been calculated at a linear rate to have spent 12 ka travelling to its present location, but this calculation would shrink drastically to account for the concurrent and relatively recent cementing of the sediments. Similar rate-of-process adjustments would have to be made for the rest of earth's natural formations as well, effectively 'unearthing' the assumption that geological processes have always occurred at presently observed rates.
Large lakes formed in the continental basins and left behind traces that we call 'paleolakes.' Minor laminations and turbidities formed in these lakes through the further settling and liquefaction of solutes. This remnant water cooled slowly releasing more solutes from suspension at a very high rate, which then settled to the bottoms of these protolakes where they experienced more liquefaction to a lesser degree but for a prolonged duration. In addition, gradual cementation of the sediments resulted as reviving vegetation acted on the carbon cycle by depleting carbon dioxide from the atmosphere (and oceans,) which then caused further precipitation of calcite in various forms such as limestone throughout various parts of the geological record. Here also is the proposed mechanism for calcareous fossil deposits such as oolites, biostromes, and bioherms. Where subsurface water existed that contained magnesium, whether from the erosion of granite or biological secretion, concretion resulted alternatively in dolomite.
These 'soft-earth' processes and more are to be covered in more detail in subsequent essays later in this thread. Other significant topics of interest to be discussed in detail are the oceanic trenches, island chains, observed plate movements, submarine canyons, the Grand Canyon, the Green River deposits, Monument Valley, the Petrified Forest, and miscellaneous cavern formations.
The very precise textural, structural and compositional character of sedimentary rocks matches what we see being formed in today's environments. Different environment - different sediment.
I found that statement incredibly audacious. Unexplained or debated formations are not that hard to dig up. Here are some that relate specifically to this post.Microscopic diamonds crack geologic mold - diamonds found in continental crust challenge geological theory Science News - Find ArticlesExplanation of Dolomite and "the Dolomite Problem"Snowball Earth theory unsuccessfully attempts to explain 'glacial' dropstones near the equator.Plume theory fight eruptsMechanisms of Cement Precipitation and the ``Quartz Problem''NOVA | Mystery of the Megaflood | Fantastic Floods | PBS
Is there any evidence, whatsoever, that shows deposition from SC steam extraction duplicating known sediments or rocks in terms of texture, structure, etc.
I would speculate that large deposits of fine grains of sand or salt such as the Sahara Desert or the Bonneville Salt Flats are particularly telling. When SCW decompresses, it's phase changes to gas, so solutes are precipitated completely dry. And since there aren't usually any accompanying source formations for all this sand or salt, modern theorists usually resort to invoking large amounts of water to serve as a transportation mechanism and then call it evidentiary of plate tectonics.Utah's Great Salt Lake and Ancient Lake Bonneville, PI39 - Utah Geological SurveyGreat Salt Lake - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediathe Living Africa: the land - Sahara Desert - Physical FeaturesA Late-Glacial and Post-Glacial Climatic Correlation between East Africa and EuropeMud MoundsSupercritical Fluids at PNNL
Quartz is a major constituent of granite, forming up to 25% of the rock. Most sandstones are made of quartz, the source of which is granite. Some of this quartz, in sandstones is caught up in orogenesis (mountain building) where it stressed and heated. Later, eroded it again finds itself in a sandstone, but it now bears the marks of its burial in a regional metamorphic zone.
How does the Hydroplate theory account for these different types of quartz being present in sandstones? How does the super critical mechanism mimic processes that are occur in a wholly different environment?
Since I don't know which exact formation you're referring to, I can't pretend to have an exact explanation. I can only leave you with some basic mechanisms and drop some hints as to possible scenarios. The scouring action of the subterranean release alone presents adequate heat and pressure required for diagenetic quartz deposits as well as other oddities such as columnar-jointed basalts. Add to that the heat, pressure, and quaking of the continental compression and you have a couple different mechanisms to choose from, depending on each incidence of detailed analysis of course.
It may be expedient for tectonic theorists to conclude diagenesis occurs in vastly separated processes, since there are certain boundaries as to what can be considered a naturally occurring process. But, it is more reasonable to conclude that diagenetic deposits are evidence of concurrent processes. We have quartz deposits bearing scars of pressure and heat that are located where tectonics provides no such mechanisms. So we call it evidentiary that said minerals were transported by unverified processes to where the mechanisms do exist and back? Then we state emphatically that the existence of anomalous deposits verifies this unseen transportation mechanism? They would compliment each other of course, the anomaly and the theory, if better explanations did not exist.
But, as I have laid out above, the Hydroplate Theory can explain with exquisite precision this apparent concurrence of different processes without the aid of time, chance, or unobserved processes. Both the temperatures of subduction and the pressures of orogeny are available to the hydroplate eruption. And more importantly, the Hydroplate Theory can satisfy the erosion, transportation, and deposition mechanisms empirically.