In order to answer your question effectively, we need to know your climate. High thermal mass homes work great in relatively extreme latitudes where the structure stores solar energy during the day and releases it during the night. As you get into warmer climates, you no longer desire thermal mass, instead the goal is to efficiently insulate the living area from the predominately warmer exterior and therefore thermal mass is undesirable.
In most climates, the most efficient solution is to live underground. Few people find this desirable, though.
Greenhouses, even in colder climates, are excellent environments for growing plants, but they are decidedly not ideal for human habitation. Warm, humid conditions are not ideal for human health. If I lived in a greenhouse, I'd want far more fresh air circulation than plants require. I frequently work in greenhouses and find them stifling. Perhaps what you actually are looking for is a solar thermal home (assuming you are in a climate where heating is the major concern). Fortunately for you, moderating low temperatures seems to be far easier than moderating high temperatures.
Assuming you are trying to moderate low temperature, I suggest that you research rammed-earth construction techniques and other constructions that incorporate solar thermal storage. Other alternatives are earth bags, adobe bricks, concrete, structural brick, or any other high mass building material. These types of materials are poor insulators, but they are great at storing solar heat and radiating that heat during the night.
In a warm environment like I live in, I have to avoid these materials and instead choose low mass building materials and thick insulation in order to prevent solar energy from overheating my living space. In a warm environment, straw-bale walls, conventional stick-frame or pole-barn with thick insulated walls, and false roofs and wide overhangs are more beneficial.
Fundamentally, your construction material choice has to be made around whether you are trying to store solar energy or protect against solar energy. Regardless, I would never recommend building a home within anything like a greenhouse. High humidity is not desirable for a living space. Any organic material in a high humidity environment will rot and promote mold growth, which will adversely affect your health. Leave the greenhouse to the plants and construct a home that appropriately utilizes solar energy without the downsides of greenhouses. Use a heat pump to transfer heat to or from the ground without dealing with the humidity issues of a greenhouse.
Edited by JMJones0424, 23 September 2017 - 12:15 AM.