icarus2 Posted August 14 Report Share Posted August 14 The mechanism of the birth of the universe from nothing! New inflation mechanism! One of humanity's ultimate questions is "How did the universe come into existence?" Energy is one of the most basic physical quantities in physics, and since particles and the like can be created from beings with this energy, “How did energy come into existence?” It is related to the question we ask. Cosmology can be largely divided into a model in which energy has continued to exist and a model in which energy is also created. Each model has its strengths and weaknesses, but in the model that assumes the existence of some energy before the birth of our universe, "How did that energy come into existence?" Since the question still exists, the problem has not been resolved. In order to explain the source of energy in our universe, there have been models that claim the birth of the universe from nothing. However, the key point, the specific mechanism of how being was born from nothing, is lacking, presupposes an antecedent existence such as the Inflaton Field, or is described in a very poor state. *The nothingness referred to here is not a complete nothingness in which even physical laws do not exist, but a state in which energy is zero. The laws of physics also did not exist before the birth of the universe, and it is thought that the laws were also born as the universe was born and new physical quantities appeared, but I will not discuss them here. Regarding the birth of the universe from nothing, there is the following possibility. [ Birth and Expansion of the Universe from the Uncertainty Principle ] By the uncertainty principle, quantum fluctuations ΔE can be created, but the problem is that these quantum fluctuations must return to nothing. Therefore, a mechanism is needed to prevent quantum fluctuations from returning to nothing. Since there is energy ΔE(something with ΔE) that is the source of gravity and there is a time Δt for gravity to be transmitted, the gravitational self-energy (gravitational potential energy) must be considered. For simple calculations, assuming a spherical uniform distribution, the total energy including the gravitational self-energy is The magnitude at which the negative gravitational self-energy becomes equal to the positive mass energy can be obtained through the following equation. The inflection point R_gs is the transition point from decelerated expansion to accelerated expansion. If R < R_gs , then the positive mass-energy is greater than the negative gravitational potential energy, so the mass distribution is dominated by attractive force and is decelerating. If R > R_gs, then the negative gravitational potential energy is greater than the positive mass-energy, so the mass distribution is dominated by the repulsive (anti-gravity) force and accelerated expansion. By performing some calculations, we can find the time and energy at which ΔE enters accelerated expansion within Δt, in which quantum fluctuations can exist. According to the mass-energy equivalence principle, it is possible to define the equivalent mass (m = E/c^2) for all energies. Therefore, in this paper, the terms equivalent mass energy or mass energy or mass are sometimes used for objects with positive energy. 1. When entering accelerated expansion within the Planck time This means that, in Planck time, a universe born with an energy density of ρ_0 passes through an inflection point where positive energy and negative gravitational potential energy (gravitational self-energy) become equal. And, it means entering a period of accelerated expansion afterwards. 2. Birth and Expansion of the Universe from the Uncertainty Principle 2.1 The Uncertainty Principle + Inflating in Planck time During Planck time, energy fluctuation is During the Planck time, energy fluctuations greater than ΔE=(1/2)m_pc^2 are possible. However, when the mass distribution of an object is approximated in the form of a spherical mass distribution, Δx from the uncertainty principle corresponds to the diameter, not the radius. So Δx=2R'=cΔt, this should apply. In this case, from the values obtained above in "When entering accelerated expansion within the Planck time", the density is quadrupled, the radius is 1/2 times, and thus the mass is (1/2) times. Therefore, the mass value is M'=(5/6)m_p So, if Δt occurs during the Planck time t_p, the energy fluctuation ΔE can occur more than (1/2)m_pc^2. And, the energy of the inflection point where the mass distribution enters accelerated expansion is (5/6)m_pc^2. To summarize,According to the uncertainty principle, it is possible to change (or create) more than (1/2)m_pc^2 energy during the Planck time, If an energy change above (5/6)m_pc^2 that is slightly larger than the minimum value occurs, the total energy of the mass-energy distribution reaches negative energy, i.e., the negative mass state, within the time Δt where quantum fluctuations can exist. However, since there is a repulsive gravitational effect between negative masses, the corresponding mass distribution expands instead of contracting. Thus, the quantum fluctuations generated by the uncertainty principle cannot return to nothing, but can expand and create the present universe. *Please refer to pages 14-16 of the thesis below. # The Birth Mechanism of the Universe from Nothing and New Inflation Mechanism https://www.researchgate.net/publication/371951438 # Dark Energy is Gravitational Potential Energy or Energy of the Gravitational Field https://www.researchgate.net/publication/360096238 Quote Link to comment Share on other sites More sharing options...

icarus2 Posted August 14 Author Report Share Posted August 14 2.2. The magnitude at which the minimum energy generated by the uncertainty principle equals the minimum energy required for accelerated expansion In the above analysis, the minimum energy of quantum fluctuation possible during Planck time is ΔE≥(1/2)m_pc^2, and the minimum energy fluctuation for which expansion after birth can occur is ΔE≥(5/6)m_pc^2. Since (5/6)m_pc^2 is greater than (1/2)m_pc^2, the birth and coming into existence of the universe in Planck time is a probabilistic event. For those unsatisfied with probabilistic event, let's think about the case where the birth of the universe was an inevitable event. Letting Δt=kt_p, and doing some calculations, we get the k=(3/5)^(1/2) The meaning of the calculation result is that If Δt ≤ ((3/5)^(1/2))t_p, then ΔE ≥ ((5/12)^(1/2))m_pc^2 is possible. And, the minimum magnitude at which the energy (mass) distribution reaches a negative energy state by gravitational interaction within Δt is ΔE=((5/12)^(1/2))m_pc^2. Thus, when Δt < ((3/5)^(1/2))t_p, a state is reached in which the total energy is negative within Δt. In other words, when quantum fluctuation occur where Δt is smaller than (3/5)^(1/2)t_P = 0.77t_p, the corresponding mass distribution reaches a state in which negative gravitational potential energy exceeds positive mass energy within Δt. Therefore, it can expand without disappearing. In this case, the situation in which the universe expands after birth becomes an inevitable event. 3. The birth of the universe by the uncertainty principle provides an explanation for why the universe started out in a dense state. if, Δt = t_p=5.391x10^-44s ΔE≥hbar/2Δt = (1/2)m_pc^2 Δx=ct_p=2R’ :Since Δx corresponds to the diameter of the mass distribution Assuming a spherical mass distribution and calculating the average mass density (minimum value), ρ_0=(3/π)ρ_p = 4.924x10^96 [kgm^-3] It can be seen that it is extremely dense. In other words, the quantum fluctuation that occurred during the Planck time create energy with an extremely high density. The total mass of the observable universe is approximately 3.03x10^54 kg, and the size of the region in which this mass is distributed with the initial density ρ_0 is R_obs-universe(ρ=ρ_0) = 5.28x10^-15 [m] The observable universe was roughly the size of an atomic nucleus in Planck time. 4. Verifiability As a key logic to the argument of this thesis, gravitational potential energy appears, and the point where the magnitude of the negative gravitational potential energy equals the positive mass energy becomes an inflection point, suggesting that the accelerated expansion period is entered. R_gs = (5c^2/4πGρ)^(1/2) Since we can let R_gs be approximately cΔt/2, there is a strong constraint equation between the density and the time the universe entered accelerated expansion. Therefore, it is possible to verify the model through this. In addition, as a characteristic of the gravitational potential energy term U=-(3/5)(GM^2/R), when R increases while the total mass is constant, the gravitational potential energy term decreases, resulting in an accelerated expansion (inflation) mechanism termination may occur. Therefore, when a precise model is built, the number of factors that can verify the model increases. [Abstract] There was a model claiming the birth of the universe from nothing, but the specific mechanism for the birth and expansion of the universe was very poor. According to the energy-time uncertainty principle, during Δt, an energy fluctuation of ΔE is possible, but this energy fluctuation should have reverted back to nothing. By the way, there is also a gravitational interaction during the time of Δt, and if the negative gravitational self-energy exceeds the positive mass-energy during this Δt, the total energy of the corresponding mass distribution becomes negative energy, that is, the negative mass state. Because there is a repulsive gravitational effect between negative masses, this mass distribution expands. Thus, it is possible to create an expansion that does not go back to nothing. Calculations show that if the quantum fluctuation occur for a time less than Δt = ((3/10)^(1/2))t_p ~ 0.77t_p, then an energy fluctuation of ΔE > ((5/6}^(1/2))m_pc^2 ~ 0.65m_pc^2 must occur. But in this case, because of the negative gravitational self-energy, ΔE will enter the negative energy (mass) state before the time of Δt. Because there is a repulsive gravitational effect between negative masses, ΔE cannot contract, but expands. Thus, the universe does not return to nothing, but can exist. Gravitational Potential Energy Model provides a means of distinguishing whether the existence of the present universe is an inevitable event or an event with a very low probability. And, it presents a new model for the process of inflation, the accelerating expansion of the early universe. This mechanism also provides an explanation for why the early universe started out in a high dense state. Additionally, when the negative gravitational potential energy exceeds the positive mass energy, it can produce an accelerated expansion of the universe. Through this mechanism, inflation, which is the accelerated expansion of the early universe, and dark energy, which is the cause of the accelerated expansion of the recent universe, can be explained at the same time. *Please refer to pages 14-16 of the thesis below. # The Birth Mechanism of the Universe from Nothing and New Inflation Mechanism https://www.researchgate.net/publication/371951438 Quote Link to comment Share on other sites More sharing options...

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