As Einstein have stated, our universe is Infinite in its age and in its size.
There is no expansion in space and no acceleration expansion – Those ideas are just unrealistic.
There is no need for Dark mass, Dark energy Missing mass or any sort of divine power to explain our universe.
The explanation is as follow:
A. Creation of matter and anti matter - the knowledge gained from the accelerator in Europe. Wikipedia: "in November 2010 reported that ATRAP group could develop a new method for producing anti-atoms - hydrogen. Method is based on the slowing down of anti-particles - protons and uniting with slow positrons."Just as scientists were able to produce anti-matter in the accelerator, it is likely that nature has managed a little bit better and could also produce the ultimate accelerator of nature which is the SMBH nucleus of Spiral Galaxy.
B. Galactic nucleus - the nucleus of the Spiral galaxy is supper massive black hole – Wikipedia: "A supper massive black hole defined mass ranges from100 thousand to 10 billion solar masses. Scientists tend to assume that such a black hole exists at the center of most galaxies in the universe, including the Milky Way." It holds around hundreds of billions of stars. So clearly, the nucleus creates tremendous power and energy.
C. Create a new mass - a new mass is created around the galactic nucleus. Nucleus serves as the accelerating (or generator) that creates new material. In the near distance to the nucleus, there are probably tremendous forces and electric fields with huge energy which creates thin layers of atoms (probably - hydrogen atoms). Those atoms are moving at nearly the speed of light. Due to the pressure, speed, temperature and electric/magnetic fields more heavy atoms are formed as a result of nuclear fusion. (Eg, nuclear fusion between two atoms of hydrogen will generate helium). In this way all the atoms which are known have been created. Due to the high electric field, there is a wide range of intermolecular links. Therefore, all the following molecules are formed: water, carbon dioxide, silicates, and more. Over time, those atoms and molecules crystallize into blocks and gradually migrate outwards from the galaxy nucleus.
D. Star Birth – by wiki
" The bar may be surrounded by a ring called the 5-kpc ring that contains a large fraction of the molecular hydrogen present in the galaxy, as well as most of the Milky Way's star formation activity." Hence, Those blocks crystallize and form hot mass balls. Each ball absorbs additional mass and increases its size- similar to a snowball. As long as the ball is in the creation mass zone, it will get more mass and increase its size. Gradually, a hot new star will appear. If it's a high-mass star then it will keep all the light gases (due to gravity) and become a giant gas star. If the mass is significantly larger there is a chance for a nuclear burning activity than it might become a sun star. But when it is relatively small, than the gases might emitted into space and therefore, it becomes a rocky planet like Earth, Moon and Mars.
E. New star locked by interior side of spiral arm –The newborn star migrates outwards from the galactic nucleus. The Electric fields and forces in the nucleus of the galaxy form the shape of the famous BAR which is visible in most of the spiral galaxy. The star on the edge of the BAR continues with its outwards migration and starts penetrating to the gravitational forces of the interior side of the spiral arms. Therefore, It reduces its velocity and continue to rotate till it finely locked by the gravitational power of one of the spiral arm. It's similar to roulette ball bouncing between the cells numbers until it lost the speed and finally set in one of the cells. Therefore, the arm is drifting outwards, while new stars are getting in from the center!!! This fully meets Newton's laws!!! (Further information will be given)
F. Spiral arm - Spiral arm acts as a chain of star which is connected to each other by the gravitational power. This maintains the flat & high velocity. In fact, the galactic nucleus of a spiral galaxy like the Milky Way contains a mass of up to billions of suns. This core rotates on its axis and creates a circular motion for all the stars which are relatively close to it. Thus, rotation of a star near the galactic nucleus causes a higher speed to another star which is a little farther from the nucleus. It can be simulated as series of balls which are connected by elastic cord to each other. In one side the cord is connected to a spinning axis. Hence, the velocity of the other end of the cord will be directly affected by the rotation of the axis. The balls in this example are the stars and the elastic cord is the gravitational power. Note that all the stars in the Milky Way galaxy orbit in a uniform direction. All in one direction. (Information about the speed of stars in spiral galaxies will be given later on)
G. A brief calculation- Most of the 400 Billion stars are located at the spiral arms. Let's say about 70 Billion stars per arm. The length of each arm is about 70,000 years light and its diameter is 1000 light year. So, by average, there are about 1 billion stars in an arm segment of 1000 light year. That should be good enough to hold the gravitational chain power of the spiral arm!!!
H. New Spiral Galaxy – Each spiral mother galaxy creates many new baby spiral galaxies. This Idea perfectly fits and explains the source of the hydrogen "bridge" between Andromeda Galaxy and the Triangulum Galaxy.
Neighbor galaxies may have brushed closely, astronomers find
"The new observations confirm a disputed 2004 discovery of hydrogen gas streaming between the giant Andromeda Galaxy, also known as M31, and the Triangulum Galaxy, or M33."
As both Andromeda and Triangulum are Spiral Galaxies, with rotational suppermassive black hole, they should have the requested power to generate Hydrogen Atoms in their core. Therefore, as they are drifting apart, they are Releasing Hydrogen and set this kind of bridge!!! Andromeda has about 1,000 Billion stars. It is the mother spiral galaxy. Triangulum has about 40 billion stars. Therefore, it is a young spiral galaxy. This Hydrogen bridge is actually the Umbilical cord which connects the mother galaxy – Andromeda' to her Embryo - Triangulum. We can easily measure at what speed Triangulum is drifting away from Andromeda - V. Let's use it as a standard drifting speed between Mother and it's baby spiral galaxies.
I. Universe expending – Each new baby spiral galaxy migrates away from its Mother spiral galaxy (at a speed –V). As the baby spiral galaxy gets mature, it also generates new baby galaxies which are drifting away also at speed -V.
Let's assume that all the new born spiral galaxies are drifting in one direction.
So, the first baby galaxy is moving at speed –V with regards to the first mother galaxy. The second generation baby galaxy is moving now at a 2V speed with regards to the first mother galaxy.
We can see it as a rocket over rocket. Each new born galaxy is moving away from its mother galaxy at a speed of –V.
After several generations we would see a chain of galaxies, and the relative speed between the first one and the last one is nV. (n= no of generations).
Technically after many generations, the relative speed between the first galaxy and the last one could easily cross the speed of light.
Einstein have stated that the universe is infinite. So there is no limit for the no of the galaxies generations. Therefore, at the far end of the universe, the galaxies are moving away at ultra high speed. in the same token, the galaxies are moving in all directions. That gives an answer why the galaxies at the far end of the universe are moving faster away, while the Milky Way and Andromeda are moving to each other.
J. Big Bang - Yes, somehow the Big Bang is needed to set the first SMBH in the Universe. Without it, the universe could be an empty space. Once it set, and after infinite time of new born galaxies we get our current Universe.
Edited by davdan, 27 May 2017 - 08:06 AM.