**A Gestalt Theory on the nature of light and related phenomenon:**

**The main drawback with QM is that it has established certain inviolable tenets or beliefs that, as long they are open to other explanations, are absolutely self defeating and have no place in a science that claims to be based on pure reason and a detached and unbiased,neutral point of view. For instance one of the reasons that QM puts forward for the inadequacy of classical physics is the fact, that using purely classical physical theories ‘atoms cannot exist !’ Absurd as it sounds, a lot of the hype and baggage that QM has collected over the years, is based on the facts that classical physics has no explanation for how ‘atoms can exist.’ According to QM, it follows that the whole edifice on which Classical physics is built collapses at this point and can have no further application in explaining events at the sub-atomic level.However, anyone with even a modicum of common sense, can see at once that this is a childish argument, because no time or latitude is given for Classical Physics to come up with an explanation. In saner times, what would have been said was that classical theories do not**

*at present*appear to have an explanation as to how atoms can exist, and until they come up with some explanation the theories put forward by QM will have to be followed as the most

*likely*explanation.

Why can’t atoms exist according to the classical physics point of view: A positively charged nucleus ‘holds’ a negatively charged electron by the force of Coulomb attraction:

1)

[math]F_coul= \frac{e^2}{a^2}[/math]

(e is the electron’s and proton’s charge, a is the radius of an atom, in this case the hydrogen atom). For the atom to be stable, the force of attraction is insufficient and the electron would, as a result, fall into the nucleus. Therefore this force must be balanced by a corresponding force of repulsion, which is supplied by centrifugal force:

2)

[math]F_c = \frac{mv^2}{a}[/math]

Here m is the electron’s mass and v is its velocity. The equilibrium of forces makes it possible to determine the velocity of the electron in its orbit:

3)

[math]v = (\frac{e^2}{ma})^\frac{1}{2}[/math]

Substituting the numerical values for charge, the electron’s mass, and the radius of the atom

(3 x 10

^{-8 }cms. approx) yields the answer : [math]v \approx 10^{8}[/math]

^{ }cms/sec or 1000 km/sec.

Next we need to know the total energy of the electron in the field of the nucleus:

4)

[math]E= -\frac{e^2}{2a}[/math]

This formula is obtained by the summation of the kinetic energy and the potential energy of the electron. Finally, the radiation intensity of a charge e moving with acceleration

*w*can be calculated : [math] w = \frac{v^2}{a} [/math]

5)

[math]I = \frac{2e^2w^2}{3c^2} = \frac {2e^2v^4}{3c^3a^2}[/math] ergs/sec

If the electron emits I ergs each second, then it will lose all its energy in a time interval:

6)

[math] T\approx\frac{a}{v}(\frac{c}{v})^{2}[/math]

Using this equation it is possible to calculate that T = 10

^{-10 }Sec. Thus according to Classical physics , the electron should fall into the nucleus in about:

10

^{-10 }secs and therefore atoms cannot exist.

So far so good, it has been adequately demonstrated that the existing classical physics explanations for the phenomenon are inadequate. Yet QM tends to frame this inability in terms of absolutes with statements such as :

“This is the best demonstration of the total failure of Classical Physics.”

And

“This is possibly the most impressive contradiction between classical physics and experiment etc., etc.,.

“The new mechanics was developed precisely to eliminate this contradiction.”

Impressive, but what was the QM explanation of the phenomenon ?

New information on the structure of the atom was emerging so fast at this time in the 1920’s that there was hardly time to assimilate it. Yet the proponents of the wave theory seemed to have the upper hand, precisely because of seemingly insoluble problems such as that of the existence of the atom referred to earlier. One solution that received almost universal recognition at the time was ‘wave’ theory. Obviously a wave is not localized, if the electron was considered as a wave the problem of the ‘radiating electron falling into the nucleus’ went away since the electron was spread out and not localized. This theory seemed to gain ground with Louis De Broglie’s theory of matter waves, since waves were associated with matter it seemed obvious that waves could also be associated with electrons, this was especially so when De Broglie’s equations seemed to indicate that ‘matter waves’ would have a significant effect when applied to an object the size of an electron. The only problem with this theory, as with so many other theories in Quantum Mechanics,was that neither De Broglie, nor anyone else could explain what was waving. To this day more than seventy years after De Broglie formulated his theory, no-one can come up with an explanation of what exactly, in the physical sense, is supposed to be waving when one speaks of matter waves, or waves associated with matter.

The German physicist Erwin Schrodinger offered a solution to the problem by suggesting that electrons could be arranged in the atom like standing waves.This seemed to fit in well with QM because, just like quanta, only a whole number of standing waves can exist in any given length. Again, as so often happens in the history of QM, Schrodinger was not content with merely giving a description of electrons where their motion or position was described in terms of standing waves, he went much further by stating that electrons were actually standing waves. He drew numerous diagrams showing the shape that ‘standing wave’ electrons might take:

Other physicists elaborated or rather generalized on this theory by stating that the electron was a cloud. The Schrodinger wave theory was at first wildly successful, physics text books in schools and colleges were altered to state that electrons travelled round the nucleus as a cloud rather than as a point particle as Bohr’s planetary model of the atom had implied. Soon, however, cracks began to show in Schrodinger’s theory, it is a little known fact that Schrodinger’s wave theory although sufficient to describe the simplest of atoms, grew in complexity when it came to describing larger atoms, they became so complex that to describe the Uranium atom required, no less than 276 dimensions! Don’t even ask me what this means because quite frankly it is beyond comprehension. To try and comprehend the 4 dimensions of General relativity or the 4 to 5 dimensions of Brane Theory or the 11 dimensions put forward by String Theory is bewildering enough, but even to try and imagine 276 dimensions is really out of this world, the Universe and anything else we can relate to. Obviously when Schrodinger came to this conclusion he came to the realization that his theory was untenable. Once so popular, Schrodinger’s wave function theory fell into disrepute, Schools and Colleges once again altered their text books to delete any references to electrons as clouds. What happens next is even more bizarre. The Danish scientist Neils Bohr had been doing some incredible work improving his model of the atom by working on the problem of atomic spectra. Scientists at this time could not understand how a simple Hydrogen atom, having only a single electron could emit a spectrum that had over a hundred lines. Bohr showed that when electrons absorbed external energy ( as for instance a photon ) they would ‘jump’ out to an outer orbit and then emit the same amount of energy as they ‘jumped’ back to their original position. In this way Bohr was able to explain, how many electrons each shell could contain, and how much energy would be released when an electron ‘jumped’ from one shell to another. This was a truly incredible piece of work based on the collation of empirical data collected from experiments. In that sense it was a purely classical investigation. It explained every element in the periodic table, the number of electrons in its shells, its physical properties and the spectrum it radiated. When Werner Heisenberg, who had been working on the same problems as Schrodinger, learnt that Schrodinger was on the point of renouncing his wave theory, he worked hard to try to dissuade him. Heisenberg, argued that the theory was sound and that the ‘wave function’ was very important to QM. This is peculiar, because Schrodinger and Heisenberg, were, in a sense, rivals, both of them were working on different solutions to the same problem. Heisenberg explained that it was possible to solve for the wave function of any atom without using the mathematical formula designed by Schrodinger, which was extremely bulky and complicated. Instead he, Heisenberg, had designed a matrix look up table that would give exactly the same result. In actual fact all that Heisenberg had done was to tabulate Bohr’s results in the form of look up matrix tables. These tables called the s-matrix are still being used today. Of course in the intervening years the s-matrix has undergone many changes and improvements and alterations, in this particular instance, I am referring to the matrix prepared by Heisenberg that gave the probability from look up tables, of the number of electrons in each shell of the an atom, which was what Schrodinger had set out to solve with his wave function. The irony of the situation is that data compiled through meticulous research conducted on the lines of classical physics was used to shore up an absurd Quantum mechanics theory. (Like it or not, any theory which requires 276 dimensions to work is patently absurd and completely unacceptable.) The German physicist Max Born finally offered what seemed to be an acceptable solution by proposing that the wave function did not refer to any practical object but rather was a manifestation of probabilities. Still, a probability function that requires 276 dimensions, is a bit much. However, there is no doubt that the famous Schrodinger wave function equation, remains to this day the single most important mathematical element in quantum mechanics. It is described as being a composite of all the possibilities of the system being observed. Using the Schrodinger wave function it is claimed that quantum theory can predict all the probability of a microscopic event with the same precision that Newtonian physics can predict the actual occurrence of a macroscopic event.

Yet, I often wish, that just once, the wave function would predict which horse would win a race, then at least one could say: "Hey, this is a really good theory!".

So how in the end did Classical Physics explain the fact that an electron does not radiate away its energy and fall into the nucleus ? It turned out to be an elegantly simple solution and was based in large part on Werner Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle. There are two uncertainties involved one is the uncertainty involved with time and energy :

1)

[math] \Delta E\Delta t \geq \frac{1}{2}\hbar[/math]

While the second uncertainty equation relates to the uncertainty due to momentum:

2)

[math] \Delta m\Delta p \geq \frac{1}{2}\hbar[/math]

According to the first equation if a subatomic particle is involved in an event for which the time is accurately known, then there is no way in which to accurately determine its energy. Similarly, if the energy of the particle is accurately known then the time over which the interaction takes place becomes indeterminate. What this means is that if an event takes place fast enough , on the order of 10

^{-15}seconds, then the mass-energy conservation laws are not violated. So this raises the possibility that the electron maintains its movement around the nucleus by emitting and absorbing

*virtual*photons. This is a very elegant solution, because it does succeed in very concisely explaining how an electron can stay in orbit around the nucleus without radiating away all its energy. This theory has been subsequently substantiated by an experiment known as the Lamb Shift. The hyperphysics web-site has a reliable reference to the Lambshift. Surely this is a much more acceptable explanation of the existence of atoms than the hugely complicated wave function that was initially evolved to solve just this problem ? The point here is that it is impossible to completely dismiss the findings of QM, a large part of QM is brilliant, it is therefore necessary that those findings be used to evolve alternate explanations for phenomenon, that are at present taken as gospel by Quantum Mechanics.

Another conundrum posed by physics is the phenomenon of current in a wire. It is well known that if a difference of potential is applied to a free electron, the electron will move at the speed of 10

^{8}cms/sec. The explanation for this is as follows:

We assume that this field (i.e., potential difference)

*E*= 1V. Therefore force

*eE*is applied to each electron, and the acceleration

*w*=

*eE*/m. An electron travelling at this acceleration over a distance of 1 cm gains a velocity of 10

^{8 }cms/sec.

However, what is less well known is that the average velocity of an electron in a wire to which a difference of potential is applied is just 3 x 10

^{-3 }cms/sec

^{. }An explanation of this is as follows. If we assume that the current density flowing in a wire is [math]1 amp/cm^{2}[/math]

^{ }and that the velocity of random motion of electrons is known, then using the definition:

1) [math]J= en_{ev}[/math]

2) Where e = 4.6 x 10

^{-19 }cgs esu, [math]n_{e}=\frac { Z}{a^3}[/math] = 10

^{22}– 10

^{23}cm .

Transforming 1 amp into electrostatic units 1A = 3 x 10

^{9}

^{}cgs esu. Substituting these values gives v = 10

^{-3}cms/sec.

This is incredibly slow, much slower than a person would take to walk from one end of the wire to the other, and completely at odds with the fact that current in a wire is established at the speed of light. 3 x10

^{8}metres/sec. Yet physics states that it is the electron which is the basic unit of electrical charge. (i.e., it is the electron that is the charge carrier in a current.) So what is the explanation for the flow of current in a wire ? One explanation that is frequently put forward, is that a conductor through which an electric current is being passed resembles a tube filled with ping pong balls, put in one ping pong ball at one end and one comes out of the other end. Unfortunately, a wire through which a current is being passed does not resemble this scenario at all. For one electron to hit another while travelling within the wire would be roughly the equivalent of trying to hit one billiard ball with another that is 50 Kms away! Even though free electrons in a conductor are often compared to molecules in a gas, which often collide, this is not an accurate picture of the state of things when a current is flowing through a conductor. If this is a bit too complicated to understand,try to explain how a current flows through a capacitance linked circuit. We know for a fact that no electrons pass through the capacitor, yet when an alternating current is applied to the circuit a current is seen to flow through it. So what is happening? Maxwell explained this by stating that there is a displacement current, in other words the atoms of the di-electric are physically deformed when a current tries to pass through it, when the current reverses the di-electric relaxes and a current is established in the circuit. If this is the case it still does not explain how electrons are the charge carriers. Failing to find a better explanation, QM had no other resort but to try to embrace Maxwell’s equations for electromagnetism and try to fit it into a quantum theory, this meant trying to explain an essentially wave theory in terms of dots or particles. The result is something known as quantum electrodynamics. The mathematical chaos that resulted from this endeavour are only too well known, the sleight of hand, the subterfuges and self deceiving blinkers that are put into practice to do this are well known, normalization,re-normalisation, division by zero etc., Is there another solution ? Let’s move on.

Perhaps the most controversial theory of QM is that of wave particle duality. How can something be a wave and a particleat the same time? According to the complementarity theory of Neils Bohr a photon can be either a particle or a wave but never both at the same time. To put it another way. How can mutually exclusive wave-like and particle–like behaviour both be properties of one and the same light ? QM explains this by saying that, they are not behaviours of light, they are properties of our

*interaction*with light. The most frequently quoted experiment in this regard is the double slit experiment. Where a photon seems to be aware of the second slit being open or closed and acts correspondingly, i.e.,producing either an interference pattern or a diffraction pattern. This experiment has been performed with electrons, and even alpha particles yielding the same result. This seems to lend credence to the theory that all particleshave wave like properties. This is a very important aspect of QM because so many suppositions, many of them esoteric, outrageous and cabalistic have been built around the results of the double slit experiment. For instance, one of the frequently asked questions is:

“How does information get around so fast. How can the photon know when the other slit is open? “

From the double slit experiment has arisen the theory that light ( photons ) in some way disassociate themselves and suddenly reappear at the point of detection. It also seems to support the theory that photons can be in two places simultaneously . Is there any other explanation for the results seen in theDouble Slit Experiment?

To offer an explanation that satisfies all criteria, we have to make two propositions that are directly in contradiction of Quantum Mechanics (a) that light

*is*simultaneously a particle and a wave and (b) that an aether type of medium exists.

As regards (a) what would have been unthinkable 70 or 80 years ago when QM was first proposed is now fairly common place. For instance the ultrasonic sound devices that are used to shatter kidney stones into pieces is one example where a wave (sound) is behaving as if it had particle like or solid properties. How is it possible to break a stone using just sound, which is after all a wave, in this case consisting of air molecules? Later on an attempt will be made to show how a photon can be simultaneously both a particle and a wave.

With regard to point (b) Quantum mechanics has already come to the realization that there must be something similar to the aether to account for what otherwise can only be accounted for action at a distance. As usual with QM they have gone overboard with the concept of fields, when Quantum Field theory, as it is know, was first introduced, there were only three known particles,so only three fields were necessary. Today, over a 100 particles are known and Quantum Field Theory requires a field for each one of those 100 particles! Since this seems to complicate nature rather than simplify it, most scientists have given up the idea of a separate field for each particle. Still, it is hardly outrageous, therefore for Gestalt Theory to suggest an aether type of field. The aether type of field that is suggested for‘Gestalt’ theory is a ‘virtual photon’ type of aether. Consider that most of the stable sub atomic particles such as electrons and protons exist practically forever i.e.,10

^{22}years. Yet the photon is supposed to have a very short life span that exists only from the time it is emitted to the time it is absorbed. What if in actual fact the photon also has a very long life span comparable to that of the electron or the proton. The origin of this ‘virtual photon’ aether would be the Big Bang itself when photons in unimaginable numbers flooded the whole of the Universe. How do they survive undetected ? The answer would seem to lie in Heisenberg’s Uncertainty principle. If these photons have a low enough energy on the order of 10

^{-15}cgs esu . They can survive indefinitely. Imagine what the existence of such a 'virtual photon' aether would mean:-

1) It would be tasteless

2) Odourless

3) Undetectable

4) Would pass through matter without any difficulty, since no atom would react with photons of such low energy.

5) Would serve as medium for the transport of electromagnetic radiation.

6) Would be an explanation for why the speed of light is constant.

7) Would totally explain the Double slit experiment.

8) Occupies the whole Universe

Gestalt Theory:

Having established the concept of a 'virtual photon' type of aether. It is time to go over the basic facts of Gestalt theory. It is well established that the electron is an electrically charged particle, it is equally well established that changes in an electron’s energy are mediated through the absorption and emission of photons. What could be more natural than that the matter that the electron is emitting and absorbing are pulses of electrical energy. Look at the following diagrams:

This is what a photon might look like. As can be seen it consists of pulses of electrical energy that have been emitted by an electron, encapsulated in a solenoidal electrical field. What are the properties of such a photon construction:-

1) The photon has no mass

2) It will always travel at the speed of c.

3) It is electrically neutral, meaning that it won’t be affected by electromagneticfields.

4) It will preserve its energy intact.

5) It has the properties of both a transverse wave and of a particle.

6) High energy photons would have a different emission system as compared to low energy photons such as radio waves.

7) It travels in straight lines until it is absorbed.

In short such a photon construction means that all of the criteria associated with a photon are realized. But how does the photon propagate through space. To answer this we have to return to the concept of a ‘virtual photon ’ aether. Let us assume that the ‘virtual photon’ aether is in random motion when at rest. When a real photon is emitted from an electron the ‘virtual photons’ along its line of propagation line up in a line whose ends rest on infinity. The real photon then travels along this line of ‘virtual photons’, till it either loses energy and joins the ‘virtual photon’ aether or till it is absorbed by a suitable electron in its path. A discussion of how a photon can lose energy and turn into a virtual photon will take place later. For now we return to the Double slit experiment. Look at this diagram.:

In this diagram it can be clearly seen that the when both the slits are open the particle, photon, electron, alpha particle etc., will follow the route taken by the ‘virtual photon’ ether as it passes through the two slits and aggregates at certain points forming the typical interference pattern associated with the double slit experiment. Interestingly this model of the virtual photon aether and of photon construction, also gives positive results when applied to the polarization experiment that is also put forward by QM as one of the incontrovertible proofs of the soundness of QM theory. I will continue discussing flow of current in a conductor and radio waves in the nextpost, if this one is at all favourably received.

**Edited by McQueen, 04 September 2012 - 03:30 AM.**