Just a note on Pyro-Catalyic thermal conversion developments; By 2016 CoolPlanet will be producing 30 Million Gallons & 200K tons of Char/yr ;
Checkout CoolPlanet's Announcement;The complete Cool Planet story. What is it? Why transformational? What are the next steps?http://www.biofuelsd...eads-for-scale/
I think the Jewel in CP's crown will be these small decentralized, 1000 gallon/day, sub-scale plants;
"Cool Planet is on its third generation design now, and expects to have its first mass producible plant open in the September period, producing what it calls 400,000 gallon per year sub-scale systems, and is expecting a fourth generation design by Spring 2013."
"The company’s business model calls for developing 400 of the micro-refineries across the U.S. in the next decade."
As these Cool CEOs have BP & Conoco over a barrel, a natural gas barrel, with these Big Oil companies wanting/needing CP's tail end catalytic Gas to Liquid process,
My reviews of the biographies of their board & speaking with the CEOs, convinces me they are not in this for money. They want Scale, distributed scale to serve food, Energy & Climate security to the people. Climate security only works with scale. Massive ecological Restoration, based on soil carbon.
If CoolPlanet Biofuels processed the entire projected US biomass harvest in 2030; 1.6 Billion Tons, the yields would be;
120 Billion Gallons of tank ready fuel ,The US uses 150 Billion gallons per year, and 0.3 Billion Tons of Biochar
It would require just 12,000 distributed refineries. each producing 10 Million gallons. Building 1000 plants per year is quite realistic.
According to Dr Hansen's new formula for assessing national CO2 liabilities, The US CO2 reduction fraction is;
26.3 PPM = 207Gt CO2, 207 GtCo2 = 56 GtC,
The avoided Fossil carbon from 120 Billion gallons of Bio-Gasoline = -0.324 GtC/yr + -0.3 Gt Char = -0.624 GtC/yr
A significant draw-down & avoidance without even accounting for the out year increases of NPP, lower fertilizer use & avoided CH4 & N2O emissions .2011 Son of Billion Ton Study
A research team led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory projected that the US would have between 1.1 and 1.6 billion tons of available, sustainable biomass for industrial bioprocessing by 2030. The finding was a highlight of the “2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry”. The report is an update of a landmark 2005 study undertaken by the DOE and ORNL in 2005.http://www1.eere.ene..._ton_update.pdf
This tonnage could be doubled with an aggressive program to develop marginal lands of the south west. Colleagues working with Agave on marginal lands in Mexico & US southwest, estimate that such marginal lands have the potential of another 1.5 Gt of biomass production.Borland A. et al. 2009
Exploiting the potential of plants with crassulacean acid metabolism for bioenergy production on marginal lands
"The substantial biomass increases reported for CAM species under elevated CO2 on marginal lands indicate that serious consideration should be directed towards exploring the potential of CAM plants as a low-input source of bioenergy and as a means of stimulating sustainable economic growth in developing countries."http://jxb.oxfordjou...60/10/2879.full