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On the origin of patriarchy and other paralogisms.


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I have no specific arguments with the paper, other than a few obserations of my own admittedly limited knowledge.

As far as I know they is no majority of patriarchy among birds and fishes.  Neither parent is physically bound to the nest (offspring) and both parents can take turns caring for the offspring. Parents can easily alternate with care and protection of the nest and divide hunting time. A successful survival strategy as is evidenced by most fowl and fish species. 

Monogamy in fish 

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Monogamy is the practice where males and females have prolonged pair bonds. Monogamy usually establishes that an equal amount of males and females will contribute gametes to the offspring population. Monogamous relationships in fish species are usually practiced when individuals of the opposite sex are generally hard to find or environmental conditions find monogamous relationships to be more favorable to the species.

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In fish, it is very rare to find long term pair bonding with the exception of butterflyfish. More frequently, fish participate in sequential monogamy where the monogamous pair is only extended over one mating period instead of long-term. Parental care from monogamous pairs is more often seen in freshwater fish, but rarely in reef fish.[1]Though many fish do not choose to participate in monogamous sexual relationships, the few species that do tend to be extremely territorial. Monogamous freshwater fish include substrate spawners, mouthbrooders, and bubblenesters, including the cichlidae, osteoglossidae, heteropneustidae, channidae, and bagridae fish families.[1] An example of a monogamous saltwater fish is the anglerfish, which lives at depths much deeper than most coral reefs.

 
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Male anglerfish, being much smaller than their female counterparts, permanently attaches to a female becoming a parasite that can feed off of the female while simultaneously providing sperm for anglerfish reproduction. [2]

https://www.coraldigest.org/index.php/FishReproduction

Any special attributes of strength and beauty is selected for in the male and it is the female who chooses the most appealing male for breeding. Note that several bird and fish species are monogamous and mate for life.

Birds that mate for life 

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The world of wildlife behaviors is incredibly varied, with all manner of sexual practice on display. For birds specifically, the World Wildlife Foundation found that around 90% of species choose monogamy as their reproductive strategy. This is a huge number compared to mammals at just 5%.

 https://safarisafricana.com/birds-that-mate-for-life/

The difference in mammals is that the female must remain with offspring for feeding purposes, which forces the male to provide food for both adults. This has also survival advantages , but they are more restricted to the immediate environment and selects the male physical attributes for specialization in hunting skills  and protection of both female and offspring. Note that among mammals except humans, polygamy (harems) is prevalent and is causal to "winner gets the spoils, including the females", and the start of endless wars for territory and breeding privileges. The most deadly species is modern man and the wars are necessary because modern man is an invasive species that tends to eradicate all local life within their territory. Unless natural selection provides for regular culling of the human species, we'd kill of our host planet just like a parasite that kills the host organism.

The one glaring exception to this hominid patriarch y is the Bonobo chimpanzee, which has a matriarchal society, which encourages loving relationships where all excitement, including anger produces sexual arousal in both male and female and conflict is resolved by "making love" and sharing abundance with other local species. It is not unusual to see several species sharing a field that is bearing sustenance .

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Whereas chimpanzees form male-male bonds exhibiting resource-defense polygyny with intolerance and aggression toward nonresidents, bonobos form male-female and female-female bonds resulting in relaxed relations with neighboring groups.

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Here we report the first known case of meat sharing between members of two bonobo communities, revealing a new dimension of social tolerance in this species. This observation testifies to the behavioral plasticity that exists in the two Pan species and contributes to scenarios concerning the traits of the last common ancestor of Pan and Homo. It also contributes to the discussion of physiological triggers of in-group/out-group behavior and allows reconsideration of the emergence of social norms in prehuman societies.

 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12110-018-9311-9

 

Edited by write4u
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