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Why The Moon Landing Couldn't Have Been Faked

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Many think radiation from the Van Allen belts make travelling to the Moon impossible and the Moon landings were faked, but here is evidence to the contrary:

The Apollo missions marked the first event where humans travelled through the Van Allen belts, which was one of several radiation hazards known by mission planners. The astronauts had low exposure in the Van Allen belts due to the short period of time spent flying through them. Apollo flight trajectories bypassed the inner belts completely to send spacecraft through only the thinner areas of the outer belts.

Astronauts' overall exposure was actually dominated by solar particles once outside Earth's magnetic field. The total radiation received by the astronauts varied from mission to mission but was measured to be between 0.16 and 1.14 rads (1.6 and 11.4 mGy), much less than the standard of 5 rem (50 mSv) per year set by the United States Atomic Energy Commission for people who work with radioactivity.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Van_Allen_radiation_belt

The film used on the Moon in the Hasselblad cameras had not been fogged by the radiation of the Van Allen belts, an indicator of the relatively low radiation dose received from the belts, (travelling at a high speed of about 25,000 mph through the belts also helped keep time of radiation  exposure low).

The Russian tortoises sent around the Moon in 1968 are a good example other than the Apollo missions of how life can survive the Van Allen belts:

The first two tortoises in space were launched on Zond 5 on 14 September 1968 by the Soviet Union. The Horsfield's tortoises were sent on a circumlunar voyage along with wine flies, meal worms, and other biological specimens. These were the first animals in deep space and the first inhabitants of earth to travel around the moon. The capsule overshot its terrestrial landing site but was successfully recovered at sea on 21 September. The animals survived but suffered some weight loss.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animals_in_space

Luna 2 (launched 1959) carried 5 different instruments to conduct various tests while it was on its way to the Moon. The scintillation counters would be used to measure any ionizing radiation; the Cherenkov radiation detectors would be measuring for electromagnetic radiation caused by charged particles. “The Geiger Counter carried on Luna 2 had the primary scientific objective of determining the electron spectrum of the outer radiation belt.

 Because of claims that information received from Luna 1 (1959) was fake, as soon as the scientists of Luna 2 starting receiving transmissions they sent out the intended time of impact, and the transmission and trajectory details.[12] Even though Soviet scientists gave all this information Americans were still sceptical until Bernard Lovell was able to prove that the radio signal was coming from Luna 2 by showing the Doppler shift from its transmissions. After this no one seemed to question the validity of the Soviets.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luna_2


The Soviet Union swapped a gram of the mission sample for a lunar sample from NASA in December 1976. Luna 24 was the last lunar spacecraft to be launched by the Soviet Union. It was also the last spacecraft to make a soft landing on the Moon until the landing of Chang'e 3 on December 14, 2013, 37 years later.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luna_24

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