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  1. Adding more Hydrogen to the sun could keep it going longer but it would be easier to find a new star. Helium is the only element that is abundant on the sun but not on the Earth.
  2. You need a solar sized celestial body to create a solar sized flare. That is the answer to your original question.
  3. It is possible to scale it up or down. An electrical spark several times larger than the Earth heating an atmosphere more massive than anything on Earth is a solar flare.
  4. It takes massive amounts of heat, mass, and magnetism to create a solar flare. Lightning and nuclear explosions are Earth sized solar flares. Plasma is a state of matter in its hottest form. Cooler states of matter are: gas, liquid, solid, and Bose-Einstein condensate at near zero degrees Kelvin.
  5. Both the bathtub and the washing machine serve as tiny “grounds” on their own since they can accumulate an electrical charge on their surfaces. Both can also attract or emit electrons to the air so they are “grounded” to the air to complete the circuit just enough to keep the LED lit. There may also be some leakage through the conductors. Mitko Gorgiev has demonstrated that you don’t need the ground for a “ground” and that an “open” circuit can carry a current.
  6. A continuous electrical current would keep the process going but it takes more electrical energy to split the water molecules than you could gain with combustion.
  7. Is this in reference to the "sciencechatforum.com"? That is where I get the same message.
  8. C slows in a gravitational field relative to an outside observer but locally c is a ratio that remains the same. Gravity is a space/time energy gradient where increasing gravity amounts to a region of shorter space and slower time. The expansion of space would make c slower if time did not change with space but expanding space is like the emergence from a BB gravity well where time quickens as space expands so locally c remains the same since c is a constant by definition. In the BB theory, the changes in time that accompany the expansion of space are corrected for mathematically by the use
  9. The ER bridge and EPR entangled set appear equivalent to me but language purists may differ. However, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen effect was not quite "predicted" by the trio. The EPR effect was a thought experiment used to demonstrate the impossibility of action at a distance but it was invalidated the experiments of Bell and Aspect shortly after Einstein's death so Einstein's prediction was the opposite of what it is now taken to be.
  10. Yes, the transition from a gravitationally dense state to a less dense state would suggest that time was slower in the distant past and this would appear as an acceleration of space. I don't know but I suspect this is part of the calculations for the rate of expansion. An acceleration of time would necessarily accompany an expansion of space if c is to remain a constant.
  11. A quantum is a single unit of something and not necessarily the smallest possible unit of the same measure.
  12. Photon beams are necessary because the occurrence of a "split" photon is a rare event when the beam is passed through a SPDC crystal. The crystal does not split the beam itself as does a half silvered mirror but it splits a rare passing single photon. The photon is split into two halves with each half having 1/2 the energy of the original and 2x the wavelength. The beam is then blocked by a colored filter that allows only the pairs of split single photons to pass through.
  13. Light quanta can, on rare occasions, be split in half by passing a light beam through certain crystals. The result is two photons with twice the original wavelength and half the original energy. The effect is known as spontaneous parametric down-conversion. This may be the result of one photon being absorbed and two being emitted. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spontaneous_parametric_down-conversion
  14. In any model having an unbounded surface, the CMB radiation should be the first to go. Our universe appears to be internally curved so whatever energy that was there in the beginning should still be around in some form. It is hard to imagine that any form of early energy could remain in its primal state without having been absorbed and re-emitted by cold, non-luminous matter such as hydrogen atoms or dust particles so little radiation from the early and denser universe should maintain its original spectral signature. The energy behind the CMB is thought to have been generated by an intens
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