“Children of Abraham in the era of the genome: the main populations of the Jewish diaspora consist of separate genetic clusters with a common Middle Eastern origin” (Atzmon et al, 2010)
Today, this work is the most comprehensive and thorough of all scientific studies on the genetics of the Jews. Therefore, I will base my conclusions primarily on this study. But then I will introduce amendments in the light of newer studies on DNA genealogy.
The authors compared the genetics of the following Jewish and non-Jewish populations:
- The Jews of Iran,
- The Jews of Iraq,
- The Syrian Jews,
- Ashkenazi Jews,
- The Jews of Italy,
- The Jews of Greece,
- Turkey Jews,
8.Italians from Bergamo and Tuscany,
9.Italians of Sardinia,
Using the methods developed by geneticists, the authors obtained two-dimensional graphical diagrams that allow us to estimate the degree of genetic relatedness or distance between the listed 16 populations.
I have carefully studied these diagrams, and will try to convey what I distinguished, in simple words .
The first diagram allows to estimate the genetic remoteness of all 16 populations from the indigenous people of Africa, North America and East Asia. If someone declares that the Jews should return to their brothers in Cambodia or Uganda, or that we are relatives of American Indians (anti-Semites like to send us far away), then we will say with good reason NO to these reptiles.
And yet … Among our close circle of non-Jewish relatives were the Arabs of Israel, the Europeans and, a little further away, the inhabitants of North Africa.
As for Europe, everything is clear: when the ancient people of the Middle East and Iran learned to cultivate the land (some 15,000 years ago), providing themselves with abundant food, they began to multiply wildly, and moved through Turkey and the Balkans to Western Europe. Their relatives went to Egypt, and from there to North Africa, and to the south, to East Africa. The Iranians went eastward.
Today, just as 15,000 years ago, Europeans are genetically close enough to the inhabitants of Levant (ancient Canaan), although gene mutations have occurred over the millennia that passed. These mutations are «caught» by scientists — DNA genetics, and based on the mutations they develop the family tree of both individuals and populations.
North Africans (Berbers) are aloof from us a little further than the Europeans.
The second and third diagrams give a graphic display of the genetic proximity or remoteness of 16 populations that were under the microscope of geneticists.
In the center of the field, we find three groups of Jews that came from Greece, Turkey and Syria. They partially overlap, indicating a close genetic link. Let’s call them «genetically central Jews.»
The closest to the three “genetically central” groups of Jews were, on the one hand, Ashkenazi Jews, on the other, the Jews of Italy, and on the third side (partially overlapping with the Jews of Syria) were … Druze! The ones that serve in the Israel Defense Forces. It turns out that they are our brothers in arms, but not only.
Immediately after the Druze, partially overlapping with them, are “placed” the Bedouins of Israel and the Jews of Iraq.
At a little more «genetic distance» from the «central» Jews «, but from the opposite side, closer to the Turkish Jews, were the Italians of Sardinia.
And again, at the same «genetic distance», but closer to the Ashkenazim, were residents of Northern Italy (non-Jewish).
And here we go to the most interesting part of the movie — to the Palestinians. It turned out that genetically Palestinians are divided to two remote from each other, almost equal groups. The Palestinian group «genetically close» to the Jews, partially overlaps with the Bedouins of Israel. It placed at the same «genetic distance» from the Jews, that the inhabitants of Italy and the Circassians. But the second, somewhat larger group, turned out to be “far away” from its Palestinian brothers, as well as from all Jews with Druze and Bedouins, and even “farther” than the French and Basques. But on the same «distance» that the Russians. One half of the ancestors of the Palestinian people, most likely, came not from the Levant (Canaan).
I cannot say that I did not expect such a «Palestinian result». Quite the contrary is correct. I have long noticed that the ancient, Jewish and non-Jewish, cities, and especially the villages of the Land of Israel, in the course of Middle Age gradually became empty.
It is enough to look into the history and archeology of any village in the Galilee, in the history of Haifa, Tiberias, and even of Jerusalem, to make sure that there was a break of population in all these settlements. The people who inhabited them before, disappeared. And only after the break, the same settlements were re-populated. But now other people have settled them, they differed genetically from their predecessors.
Only in a few settlements had the old and new populations residing simultaneously. The “old population” were the Jews, whom the new settlers, the ancestors of the modern Palestinians, gradually forced out. The local Jews, called “Mustaarab” (Arabized), or Moriscos (Moors) in the language of Spanish Zionist immigrants, fled their villages to the refuge cities: Safed, Tiberias, Jerusalem and Hebron, where they joined the communities of wealthy immigrants from Spain.
Only one of dozens Palestinian clans (khamulas) recognizes its Jewish ancestry. All the others believe that they are descendants of Arabia tribes, or of Salah ad Din settlers (Saladin’s army composed of Turks, Circassians and Kurds). The rest consider themselves the descendants of 16-20 century settlers from Syria, Lebanon, Transjordan, Egypt, Hejaz, Maghreb, Iraq, Bosnia, etc. Such is the opinion of the PALESTINIANS who remained in Palestine.
Regarding hypotetic «Christian and Jewish converts to Islam», so the policy of the First caliphs was not to convert Christians and Jews to Islam. The reason was quite practical: the Muslims had exempt from «jizya», the tax paid by Christians and Jews. The Fatimide Caliph al Hakim broke this rule but after his misterious disappearance all his reforms were recalled.
The Crusaders have murdered or expelled most of local Muslims and the Jews, while the Muslims did the same with local Christians after defeating Crusaders.
After the Land emptied of its ancient population, Palestine was settled by newcomers. This way an ancient Palestine population was replaced by new settlers of Muslim, Christian and even Jewish faith. In the Middle Age there ocured demographic overturn in Palestine.
It seems, that Diaspora Jews preserved just ancient genomes, while the ancestors of the Palestinians were of Semitic but not local origin. So the Jews are close but not identical with the Palestinians. Only new research of the genome of pre-exile Palestine population may resolve this scientific and ideological dispute.
Yes, but why do a half of the Palestinians still genetically close to the Druze, the Jews and the Bedouins?
First, the recent waves of the immigration of Muslims and Christians to Palestine (organized by the Turkish Sultan) came from Lebanon and Syria, as well as from Egypt and Arabia. Most of them are genetically close to the Druze and Bedouin, and ultimately to the Jews. Just, the cousins.
Edited by HouseKnight1, 01 January 2019 - 02:50 PM.