I can’t state this as an indisputable fact, but I would be willing to wager that at least 95% of borders that define countries today, were drawn up as the result of war and occupation by invaders in the past.
Since at least Roman times, England is quite possibly the country that has been involved in more wars of conquest than any other. Indeed, it was the British who signed the Sykes-Picot agreement and later, the Balfour Declaration, promising a national home for the Jewish people in the Levant, which was finally realized when the UN accepted a resolution on the partition of Palestine in 1947.
This would all be a normal part of nation building in the British tradition, if it were not for the religious aspect; that changes everything! The Jews absolutely believe (make that “know” in their minds) that possessing the land of Israel is literally their God-given right and there is no way, now that they have it, it will ever be taken from them. The only way they will share it with other people is by treating those who do not have the Jewish God-given birthright, as inferiors.
Making matters much worse is the fact that Muslims have always treated Jews exactly the same way; as inferiors; no better than monkeys and pigs.
So, what you have isn’t just another case of a nation born out of war and conquest! Israel is a very special case and it will require a very special solution.
Unfortunately, I don’t have any idea what that solution may be, and it seems that nobody else knows either, so there is a perpetual state of conflict.
Getting back to the thread topic, I am not too concerned about Russia in the ME. They have never had much success establishing themselves as a major factor in that arena and Assad is just using them to help himself stay in power. The US, with by far the more powerful military, is really the only superpower in the world today, and Putin knows this. When the US forces announce they will launch a strike, the Russians get out of the way.
In my opinion, the biggest threat to world peace will come from China, not Russia, but that is an entirely different subject.