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Amber


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#1 theblackalchemist

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Posted 18 May 2008 - 02:37 AM

Amber-
Inching us closer to the past as we trod on into the future


Introduction


Millions of years ago, when plants were injured, they secreted globs of stick resin.
This aromatic resin oozed down the sides of trees. This resin filled out fissures, thereby preventing infections to the cells. Sometimes the amber has air bubbles trapped in it. This air of the prehistoric times give us conclusions to the air that the dinosaurs breathed

Sometimes this amber, attracts insects, that remain or get trapped in this natural trap. The resin solidifies over them and they remain in perfect preservation.

Amber is used in Ornaments, but for scientists they are priceless.

Amber is a


Chemical Properties


Heterogeneous, it is made of several resinous bodies that are partially/wholly soluble in alcohol, ether, and chloroform.

Amber is a macromolecule by free radical polymerization of several precursors in the labdane family, communic acid, cummunol and biformene

These labdanes are diterpenes (C20H32) and trienes which means that the organic skeleton has three alkene groups available for polymerization. As amber matures over the years, more polymerization will take place as well as isomerization reactions, cross-linking and cyclization. The average composition of amber leads to the general formula C10H16O

[FONT="]Life Preserved[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman][FONT="] [/FONT][/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman][FONT="]Different species embalmed in amber include: flies, ants, beetles, moths, spiders, centipedes, millipedes, termites, mayflies, lice, mites, gnats, bees, wasps, scorpions, cockroachs, grasshoppers, lizards,damselflies and fleas. One Dominican amber source reported finding a butterfly with a 5 inch wing spread; this is both a large and unusual find, most butterfly specimens are no more than a 2 inch wing spread. Inclusions in Dominican amber are numerous, 1 inclusion to every 100 pieces; Baltic amber contains approximately 1 inclusion to every 1000 pieces. [/FONT][/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman][FONT="]Species of spore-producing (gynmosperms) and seed-producing flowering plants (angiosperms) have been identified in amber. Gymnosperm enclosures are fir, cypress, juniper, pine, spruce and Arbor vitae. Angiosperms are represented by oaks (as many as 15 different kinds of oak), beech, maple, chestnut, magnolia, and cinnamon. Remains of palms, ferns, mosses, and flowering herbaceous plants also formed a ground cover in the ancient forests. Leaf imprints with detailed vein and cell structures are preserved, along with buds and blossoms. Even mushrooms, mammal bones, feathers, and mammal hair may be preserved in amber. [/FONT][/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman][/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman][/FONT]

[FONT=Times New Roman][/FONT]

[FONT=Times New Roman]Uses[/FONT]

[FONT=Times New Roman][/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman]In the 1920's one-half of the production of amber went for the manufacture of articles for smokers, cigar/cigarette-holders, mouth-pieces for pipes. The main finished products of amber can be divided into four categories: jewelry, smoking articles, objects of art, and devotional articles. Jewelry includes necklaces, bracelets, brooches, earrings, pendants, finger rings, cufflinks, teething rings for children, etc. Smoking articles were mentioned above. Another utilitarian use was with balls of amber, that were used to remove lint from clothing because of the ability to generate static electricity by rubbing! Objects of art are items like: carvings, jewelry boxes, cups and dishes, writing utensils, ornaments, chess sets, mosaic pictures, chandeliers. View the beautiful amber ship and amber cabinet. The ship was created in Königsberg by 1934, while the amber cabinet was made in Königsberg before 1742 and currently located in Dresden, Germany. A stunning ornamental amber egg was presented to Gdansk, Poland in honor of the city's 1000th anniversary (!) from a Mrs. Heidrun Mohr-Mayer. Other objects of art include devotional items, such as: Catholic, Moslem and Buddist rosaries, sacred figures, and amulets. Amber is used in skin care products, and for some, amber has magical powers so that red and green amber become metaphysical tools (page down for the amber tools). [/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman][FONT="]Amber and other fossil resins have a practical side too when they are used for varnish and lacquers, and burned as incense. In ancient times the aroma was appreciated in order to camouflage the odor of spoiled food. Modern resin or gum (pine pitch) is used in the production of rosin, turpentine, creams and oils for the perfume industry Fine amber varnish is applied to violins.[/FONT][/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman]Future Applications[/FONT]

[FONT=Times New Roman][/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman]Future Applications for amber are diverse, But as of now they are helping greatly for scientists to decode the Earth’s mystery, and past.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman][FONT="]In future however they may be used for many purposes, there are chances that they may push us closer and closer to the prehistoric unidentified life – forms which were unknown to man.[/FONT][/FONT]

#2 Moontanman

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Posted 18 May 2008 - 10:26 AM

Amber-
Inching us closer to the past as we trod on into the future


Introduction


Millions of years ago, when plants were injured, they secreted globs of stick resin.
This aromatic resin oozed down the sides of trees. This resin filled out fissures, thereby preventing infections to the cells. Sometimes the amber has air bubbles trapped in it. This air of the prehistoric times give us conclusions to the air that the dinosaurs breathed

Sometimes this amber, attracts insects, that remain or get trapped in this natural trap. The resin solidifies over them and they remain in perfect preservation.

Amber is used in Ornaments, but for scientists they are priceless.

Amber is a


Chemical Properties


Heterogeneous, it is made of several resinous bodies that are partially/wholly soluble in alcohol, ether, and chloroform.

Amber is a macromolecule by free radical polymerization of several precursors in the labdane family, communic acid, cummunol and biformene

These labdanes are diterpenes (C20H32) and trienes which means that the organic skeleton has three alkene groups available for polymerization. As amber matures over the years, more polymerization will take place as well as isomerization reactions, cross-linking and cyclization. The average composition of amber leads to the general formula C10H16O

[FONT="]Life Preserved[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman][FONT="] [/FONT][/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman][FONT="]Different species embalmed in amber include: flies, ants, beetles, moths, spiders, centipedes, millipedes, termites, mayflies, lice, mites, gnats, bees, wasps, scorpions, cockroachs, grasshoppers, lizards,damselflies and fleas. One Dominican amber source reported finding a butterfly with a 5 inch wing spread; this is both a large and unusual find, most butterfly specimens are no more than a 2 inch wing spread. Inclusions in Dominican amber are numerous, 1 inclusion to every 100 pieces; Baltic amber contains approximately 1 inclusion to every 1000 pieces. [/FONT][/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman][FONT="]Species of spore-producing (gynmosperms) and seed-producing flowering plants (angiosperms) have been identified in amber. Gymnosperm enclosures are fir, cypress, juniper, pine, spruce and Arbor vitae. Angiosperms are represented by oaks (as many as 15 different kinds of oak), beech, maple, chestnut, magnolia, and cinnamon. Remains of palms, ferns, mosses, and flowering herbaceous plants also formed a ground cover in the ancient forests. Leaf imprints with detailed vein and cell structures are preserved, along with buds and blossoms. Even mushrooms, mammal bones, feathers, and mammal hair may be preserved in amber. [/FONT][/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman][/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman][/FONT]

[FONT=Times New Roman][/FONT]

[FONT=Times New Roman]Uses[/FONT]

[FONT=Times New Roman][/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman]In the 1920's one-half of the production of amber went for the manufacture of articles for smokers, cigar/cigarette-holders, mouth-pieces for pipes. The main finished products of amber can be divided into four categories: jewelry, smoking articles, objects of art, and devotional articles. Jewelry includes necklaces, bracelets, brooches, earrings, pendants, finger rings, cufflinks, teething rings for children, etc. Smoking articles were mentioned above. Another utilitarian use was with balls of amber, that were used to remove lint from clothing because of the ability to generate static electricity by rubbing! Objects of art are items like: carvings, jewelry boxes, cups and dishes, writing utensils, ornaments, chess sets, mosaic pictures, chandeliers. View the beautiful amber ship and amber cabinet. The ship was created in Königsberg by 1934, while the amber cabinet was made in Königsberg before 1742 and currently located in Dresden, Germany. A stunning ornamental amber egg was presented to Gdansk, Poland in honor of the city's 1000th anniversary (!) from a Mrs. Heidrun Mohr-Mayer. Other objects of art include devotional items, such as: Catholic, Moslem and Buddist rosaries, sacred figures, and amulets. Amber is used in skin care products, and for some, amber has magical powers so that red and green amber become metaphysical tools (page down for the amber tools). [/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman][FONT="]Amber and other fossil resins have a practical side too when they are used for varnish and lacquers, and burned as incense. In ancient times the aroma was appreciated in order to camouflage the odor of spoiled food. Modern resin or gum (pine pitch) is used in the production of rosin, turpentine, creams and oils for the perfume industry Fine amber varnish is applied to violins.[/FONT][/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman]Future Applications[/FONT]

[FONT=Times New Roman][/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman]Future Applications for amber are diverse, But as of now they are helping greatly for scientists to decode the Earth’s mystery, and past.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman][FONT="]In future however they may be used for many purposes, there are chances that they may push us closer and closer to the prehistoric unidentified life – forms which were unknown to man.[/FONT][/FONT]


I have been told, but I haven't personally seen, that large numbers of wooden barrels of pine tree sap were accidentally dumped into the Cape Fear River almost three hundred years ago. A couple of these barrels have been found and were just huge chunks of amber. If true this would seem to point to the possibility of a large amount of large amber chunks buried in the sediments of this river. Would such large chunks be possible and if they exist would they be valuable?

#3 theblackalchemist

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Posted 19 May 2008 - 10:20 AM

Of course!
Amber without air bubbles are more than their weight in GOLD!
also these amber chunks can be used to make many thngs
see the uses section of my article
Thanks
TBA

#4 Moontanman

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Posted 19 May 2008 - 10:28 AM

Of course!
Amber without air bubbles are more than their weight in GOLD!
also these amber chunks can be used to make many thngs
see the uses section of my article
Thanks
TBA


Is three hundred years long enough for amber to form?

#5 theblackalchemist

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Posted 19 May 2008 - 10:51 AM

as long as it is completely solidified its good