You'll be needing to hire Michelangelo, Tiziano, Raffaello, Dalì, Picasso, Van Gough, Vermeer, Klee, Mirò, Kandinsky... the whole works of them!
You are correct. Rewriting Modern Physics will be a big job. Hopefully, there will be some "artists" who are still living
working on the project.
So we wish to continue with our painting of "The Whole Picture
". The next most important foundation of physics that we wish to cover is Thermal Radiation
, commonly misnamed Blackbody Radiation
To review, Planck's Blackbody Radiation formula started it all. Raleigh-Jeans had first devised a theory that counted standing waves in a cubical "blackbody cavity". This theory made the silly prediction that small wavelength energy would be infinite in the cavity since there are an infinite number of ways to put smaller and smaller wavelengths in the cavity. Planck saw the data, so he decided to "quantize" the harmonic oscillators in the walls to justify changing Rayleigh-Jeans' infinite integral into a convergent sum. Then he experiment-matched his famous "Planck's Constant" to the data. The rest is history.
However, now that we have "the whole picture", we believe that Thermal Radiation
has nothing to do with counting standing wave modes in a cubical blackbody cavity.1)
Take a chunk of steel (without a cavity) at room temperature. See that it emits InfraRed
Take a torch and heat this steel and watch it as it glows Red
Continue to heat the steel and watch it as it starts to glow white
The steel melts before it can become "UV
So what is happening here? Clearly, this is an example of "thermal radiation", and clearly it has nothing to do with black coatings or cavities of any kind.
So what is happening here? Well, when we discussed hydrogen, we saw that as the orbital radius became larger, the frequency became lower:
So consider a solid's crystalline lattice at room temperature. The atoms have an average vibrational amplitude:
This makes their outer electron orbitals overlap. At room temperature, these affected orbitals are the outer InfraRed
frequencied orbitals, so these are the orbitals that are disturbed and radiate. Thus, we see InfraRed
radiation at room temperature.
Next, as one heats the solid to a higher temperature, the amplitude of the thermal vibrations increases:
Thus, the next layer of orbitals are disturbed. These would be the ones that have low visible frequencies. Thus the thermal radiation becomes visible Red
As the lattice is heated to an even higher temperature, the deeper orbitals that have higher visible frequencies are seen. The solid becomes "white
If one heats the object further, typically it melts. However, if it did not, then it would become "UV
In my opinion, this explanation is the reality-based physics that we need to explain thermal
radiation, and is superior to counting standing wave modes in cubical blackbody cavities. That is, thermal
radiation has nothing to do with cubical cavities, and nothing to do with black coatings. Thermal
radiation is caused by thermal vibrations disturbing deeper and deeper orbitals that have higher and higher frequencies.
Andrew A. Gray